Introduction to Accounting
Accounting - Meaning, Objectives, Types of Accounting Information, Advantages and Limitations, Users of Accounting Information and their needs.
Qualitative Characteristics of Accounting Information: Reliability, Relevance, Understandability and Comparability.
Basic Ac counting Terms: Business Transaction, Capital, Drawing, Liability, Asset, Revenue, Expenditure, Expense, Income, Losses and Gains, Purchases, Sales, Stock, Debtors, Receivables, Creditors, Payables.
Theory Base of Accounting
Basic Assumptions: Accounting Entity, Money Measurement: Going Concern, Accounting Period.
Basic Principles: Duality, Verifiability and Objectivity of Evidence, Historical Cost, Revenue Recognition, Matching, Full Disclosure.
Modifying Principles: Materiality, Consistency, Prudence, Timeliness, Substance over Form, Variations in accounting practices.
Accounting Standards: Meaning, nature and need, Accounting Standards and IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) concept and objectives.
Generation of Vouchers and Recording of Transactions
Origin of Transactions - Source Documents and Vouchers, Preparation of Vouchers
Accounting Equation - Meaning and Analysis of transactions using Accounting Equation.
Rules of Debit and Credit: For Assets, for Liabilities, for Capital, for Revenue, and for Expense.
Double Entry Book Keeping, Books of Original Entry, Meaning, Format and Recording of entries; Journal, Special Purpose Books: Meaning, Utility, Format and Recording therein:
- Cash Book - Simple Cashbook with Bank column and Petty cashbook.
- Purchase Book, Sales Book, Purchase Returns Book, Sales Returns Book, Bills Receivable Book and Bills Payable Book.
- Ledger - Meaning, Utility, Format, Posting from Journal, Cashbook and other Special Purpose Books, Balancing of accounts.
- Bank Reconciliation Statement: Meaning, Need and Preparation with amended cash book.
Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors
Trial Balance: Meaning, Objectives and Preparation.
Errors: Types of Errors, Errors affecting Trial Balance and Errors not affecting Trial Balance.
Detection and Rectification of Errors, effect on profit and loss A/c.
Suspense Account - Meaning, Utility, Preparation and Treatment of Suspense Account Balance.
Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves
Depreciation: Meaning and Need for charging depreciation, Factors affecting depreciation, Methods of depreciation - Straight Line method, Written Down Value Method (excluding change in method), Method of recording depreciation: By charging to asset account, By creating provision for depreciation/accumulated depreciation account. Asset Disposal Account.
Provisions and Reserves: Meaning and Importance, Need for provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtors, Difference between provisions and Reserves.
Types of Reserves: Revenue Reserve, Capital Reserve, General Reserve and Specific Reserve.
Bills of Exchange
Bills of Exchange and Promissory Note: Definition, Features, Parties, Specimen, Distinction.
Important Terms: Term of Bill and Days of Grace, Date of Maturity, Bill at Sight, Negotiation, Endorsement, Discounting of bill, Dishonour of bill, Noting of bill, Insolvency of Acceptor, Retirement and Renewal of a bill.
Accounting Treatment of bill transactions.
Financial Statements: Meaning and Users.
Profit and Loss Account: Gross profit, Operating profit and Net profit.
Balance Sheet: Need, Grouping, Marshalling of Assets and Liabilities.
Adjustments in preparation off financial statements with respect to closing stock, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income, income received in advance, depreciation, bad debts, provision for bad debts, provision for discount on debtors, managers’ commission,. abnormal loss, goods sent for approval and in transit.
Preparation of Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet of sole proprietorship concerns.
Financial Statement of Not-for-Profit Organization
Not for profit organization: Meaning and examples.
Receipts and Payments account, Income and Expenditure account: Meaning and Concept of Fund based accounting.
Preparation of Income and Expenditure account and Balance Sheet from Receipts and Payments Account with additional information.
Computers in Accounting
Introduction to Computers: Meaning, Capabilities and Components of Computer System.
Database concepts for Accounting.
Retrieval of accounting information-basic queries.
Accounting for Partnership
Nature of Partnership Firm: Partnership Deed -Meaning, Impact.
Special Aspects of Final Accounts of Partnership: Fixed v/s Fluctuating Capital, Division of Profit among partners, Past adjustments and Guarantee of Profits, Accounting for joint life policy.
Reconstitution of Partnership
Change in Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners -Sacrificing Ratio and Gaining Ratio.
Accounting for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities and Distribution of Reserves and Accumulated Profits. Goodwill: Nature, Factors affecting and Methods of valuation: average profit, super profit, capitalization, accounting treatment of goodwill.
Admission of a Partner: Effect of Admission of Partner, Change in Profit Sharing Ratio -Sacrificing Ratio, Accounting Treatment of Goodwill. Accounting Treatment for Re- valuation of Assets and Liabilities. Accounting Treatment of Reserves and Accumulated Profits, Adjustment of Capital Accounts.
Retirement/Death of a Partner: Change in Profit Sharing Ratio -Gaining Ratio, Accounting Treatment of Goodwill. Accounting Treatment for the Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities. Adjustment of Accumulated Profits and Reserves, Adjustment of Joint Life Policy and Capital Accounts.
Dissolution of Partnership Firm
Meaning, Settlement of Accounts: Preparation of Realization account and related accounts (excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company and insolvency of a partner).
Accounting for Share Capital
Share and Share Capital: Meaning, Nature and Types.
Accounting for Share Capital: Issue and Allotment of Shares. Private Placement of shares: Meaning of employee stock option plan and Public Subscription of share capital. Over subscription and Under subscription, Issue at par, premium and at discount, Calls in advance, Calls in arrears, Interest on Calls in advance and arrears and Issue of Shares for consideration other than cash.
Forfeiture of Shares: Accounting Treatment, Re-Issue of Forfeited Shares.
Disclosure of Share Capital in company’s balance sheet.
Accounting for Debentures
Issue of Debentures: Meaning of Debentures. Types of Debentures, Trust Deed concept, Issue of Debentures at par and at a premium, Issue of Debentures for consideration other than cash. Debentures as a collateral security.
Redemption of Debentures: Meaning, Sources of funds for redemption of debentures: from the proceeds of fresh issue of share capital and debentures, Out of accumulated profits and Sinking Fund.
Methods of redemption of debentures: In lump-sum at the end of stipulated period, By draw of lots, By purchasing in the open market, By conversion into new debentures or shares.
Analysis of Financial Statement
Financial Statements of a Company: Balance Sheet of a Company in the prescribed form with major headings only (Schedule VI).
Financial Analysis: Meaning, Significance and Purpose, Limitations.
Tools for Financial Analysis: Comparative Statements, Common Size Statements.
Accounting Ratios: Meaning and Objectives. Types of Ratios: Liquidity Ratios: Current Ratio, Liquid Ratio. Solvency Ratio: Debt to equity, Total Assets to Debt, Proprietary Ratio. Activity Ratio: Inventory Turnover, Debtors Turnover, Working Capital Turnover, Profitability Ratio: Gross Profit, Operating Ratio.
Cash flow Statement
Meaning and Objectives, Preparation, Adjustments related to depreciation, dividend and tax, sale and purchase of non-current assets (as per revised standard issued by ICAI).
Data base Design for Accounting.
Entity Relationship model.
Relational data model.
Structured Query Language (SQL) - basic queries.
Overview of Computerized Accounting System
Fundamentals of Computerized Accounting System.
Concept of Grouping of Accounts
Codification of Accounts, Maintaining the hierarchy of ledger.
Concept of electronic spreadsheet, Features offered by electronic spreadsheet.
Application in generating Accounting Information - Bank reconciliation statement, asset accounting, loan repayment of loan schedule, ratio analysis.
Data representation- Graphs, Charts and Diagrams.
Database Management System (DBMS)
Concept and Features of DBMS, DBMS in Business Application.
Generating Accounting Information - Payroll.
Area and production of various agricultural products and current status. Irrigation and drainage, weed management. Soil as a growth medium: Essential elements, organic manures, chemical fertilizers and bio-fertilizers. Reclamation of alkaline and saline soils erosion: causes and remedial measures. Soil, soil pH, soil texture, soil structure, soil organisms, soil tilth, soil fertility and soil health. Organic manure, common fertilizers including straight, complex, fertilizer mixtures and biofertilizers, integrated nutrient management system. Livestock farming, Role of livestock and poultry in agriculture. Breeds of dairy animals and poultry. Commercial dairy farming and poultry production. Management of newly born calf, pregnant and milch animals. Artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnosis and detection of heart disease in dairy animals. Cross breeding. Dairy animal and poultry diseases: foot and mouth, H.S., mastitis, black quarter, rani kheit and bird flu. Common feeds of dairy animals and importance of meat and egg in human foods.
Diversity & Structural Organisation
What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
Five kingdom classiﬁcation: salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids, Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms; Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples, Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level.
Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants: Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of ﬂowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inﬂorescence- cymose and recemose, ﬂower, fruit and see, Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).
Cell Structure and Function : Cell theory and cell as the basic Unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, ﬂagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus. Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action;
Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients- Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass ﬂow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases.
Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration- glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolicpathways; Respiratory quotient.
Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth;Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
Digestion and absorption: Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals; Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans- Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
Body ﬂuids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin- angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions; Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reﬂex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action; Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmicgoiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
Reproduction, Genetics and Evolution
Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Sexual reproduction in ﬂowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination- types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen- Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of test is and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation; Parturition; Lactation.
Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT.
Genetics and Evolution: Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene ﬂow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
Biology, Biotechnology and Human Welfare
Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
Biotechnology and Its Applications: Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
Ecology and environment
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions- mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy ﬂow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
Nature and significance of Management: Types of management, Administration, Functions, Principles of Management;
Functions of Management: Planning, Organizing, Staffing- Selection, Recruitment, Training and Development, Controlling, Directing, Motivating - Theories and Types;
Business Environment: Social, Economic, Cultural and legal environment, Economic Environment in India;
Authority and responsibility: Delegation, Centralization and Decentralization;
Leadership: Theories and style of leadership;
Communication: Introduction and Types, Barrier in communication;
Financial Management: Sources of funds, Capital Structure, Financial Markets;
Marketing Management: Types of goods, Purchase behaviour, marketing communication, advertising, 4 P’s of marketing.
Consumer Protection: Ways and means, Importance for business, Consumer Protection Act.
Evolution of Networking and Data Communication terminologies: ARPANET, Internet, Interspace; Different ways of sending data across the network with reference to switching techniques (Circuit and Packet Switching); Concept of Channel, Baud, Bandwidth (Hz, KHz, MHz) and Data transfer rate (bps, kbps, Mbps, Gbps, Tbps);
Transmission Media and Network devices: Twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, infrared, radio link, microwave link and satellite link, Modem, RJ45 connector, Ethernet Card, Hub, Switch, Gateway, wifi card
Network Topologies: Bus, Star, Tree, PAN, LAN, WAN, MAN; Wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi and WiMax
Network Protocols: TCP/IP, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), PPP, SMTP, POP3 Remote Login (Telnet), Internet, Wireless/Mobile Communication protocol, GSM, CDMA, GPRS, WLL, 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G, Electronic Mail protocols such as SMTP, POP3, Chat, Video Conferencing VOIP,
Object Oriented Concepts: Concept of Object Oriented Programming – Data hiding, Data encapsulation, Class and Object, Abstract class and Concrete class, Polymorphism (Implementation of polymorphism using Function overloading as an example in C++); Inheritance, Advantages of Object Oriented Programming over earlier programming methodologies,
Implementation of Object Oriented Programming concepts in C++: Definition of a class, Members of a class - Data Members and Member Functions (methods), Using Private and Public visibility modes, default visibility mode (private); Member function definition: inside class definition and outside class definition using scope resolution operator (::); Declaration of objects as instances of a class; accessing members from object(s), Array of type class, Objects as function arguments - pass by value and pass by reference
Constructor and Destructor: Constructor: Special Characteristics, Declaration and Definition of a constructor, Default Constructor, Overloaded Constructors, Copy Constructor, Constructor with default arguments; Destructor: Special Characteristics, Declaration and definition of destructorInheritance: Inheritance (Extending Classes): Concept of Inheritance, Base Class, Derived Class, Defining derived classes, protected visibility mode; Single level inheritance, Multilevel inheritance and Multiple inheritance, Privately derived, Publicly derived and Protectedly derived class, accessibility of members from objects and within derived class(es)
Data File Handling and Pointers: Need for a data file, Types of data files – Text file and Binary file; Basic file operations on text file: Creating/Writing text into file, Reading and Manipulation of text from an already existing text File (accessing sequentially); Binary File: Creation of file, Writing data into file, Searching for required data from file, Appending data to a file, Insertion of data in sorted file, Deletion of data from file, Modification of data in a file; Implementation of above mentioned data file handling in C++; Components of C++ to be used with file handling: Header file: fstream.h; ifstream, ofstream, fstream classes; Opening a text file in in, out, and app modes; Using cascading operators for writing text to the file and reading text from the file; open(), get(), put(), getline() and close() functions; Detecting end-of-file (with or without using eof() function); Opening a binary file using in, out, and app modes; open(), read(), write() and close() functions; Detecting end-of-file (with or without using eof() function); tellg(), tellp(), seekg(), seekp() functions
Declaration and Initialization of Pointers; Dynamic memory allocation/deallocation operators: new, delete; Pointers and Arrays: Array of Pointers, Pointer to an array (1 dimensional array), Function returning a pointer, Reference variables and use of alias; Function call by reference. Pointer to structures: Deference operator: *, ->, self-referential structures
Introduction to Data Structures and One Dimensional Arrays: Arrays, Stacks, Queues, Primitive and non-primitive data structures, linear and non-linear data structures, static and dynamic data structures, Sequential allocation in One Dimensional Arrays and address calculation, traversal, searching (Linear, Binary Search), Insertion of an element in an array, deletion of an element from an array, Sorting (Insertion, Selection, Bubble)
Two Dimensional Arrays: Sequential allocation in two dimensional array, Traversal, Finding sum/difference of two NxM arrays containing numeric values, Interchanging Row and Column elements in a two dimensional array;
Stack: Introduction to Stack, Operations on Stack (PUSH and POP) and its Implementation in C++, Converting expressions from INFIX to POSTFIX notation and evaluation of Postfix expression;
Queue: Operations on Queue (Insert and Delete) and its Implementation in C++, circular queue using array
Database Concepts: Introduction to Database Concepts and its need, Relational data model: Concept of domain, tuple, relation, key, primary key, alternate key, candidate key; Relational algebra: Selection, Projection, Union and Cartesian product;
Structured Query Language: General Concepts: Advantages of using SQL, Data Definition Language and Data Manipulation Language; Data types: NUMBER/DECIMAL, CHARACTER/VARCHAR/VARCHAR2, DATE;
SQL Commands and Functions: CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, ALTER TABLE, UPDATE...SET..., INSERT, DELETE; SELECT, DISTINCT, FROM, WHERE, IN, BETWEEN, GROUP BY, HAVING, ORDER BY; SQL functions: SUM(), AVG(), COUNT(), MAX() and MIN(), Obtaining results (SELECT) query from 2 tables using equi-join
Evolution of Boolean Algebra, Constants and Operators: Evolution of Boolean algebra, Binary-valued Quantities, Boolean Variable, Boolean Constant and Boolean Operators: AND, OR, NOT; Truth Tables; Closure Property
Laws of Boolean Algebra: Commutative Law, Associative Law, Identity law, Inverse law, Principle of Duality, Idempotent Law, Distributive Law, Absorption Law, Involution law, DeMorgan’s Law and their applications;
Boolean Expressions and Basic Logic Gates: Obtaining Sum of Product (SOP) and Product of Sum (POS) form from the Truth Table, Reducing Boolean Expression (SOP and POS) to its minimal form, Use of Karnaugh Map for minimization of Boolean expressions (up to 4 variables); Basic Logic Gates (NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR) and their use in circuits, Use of Boolean operators (NOT, AND, OR) in SQL SELECT statements, Use of Boolean operators (AND,OR) in search engine queries;
Microeconomics: Utility Analysis, Demand & Supply Analysis, Market Equilibrium, Theory of Cost and Revenue, Various type of Market structures- Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition, Oligopoly
Macroeconomics: Concepts of National Income, Structure and System of Economy, Keynesian Concepts and Principles of Economics, Monetary and Fiscal policies, Types of Business Cycle, Basics of Money and Banking
Indian Economy: Recent developments and trends in GDP, Vital rates like CRR, Bank rate etc., Fiscal deficit, Primary deficit and other types of deficits, Inflation
Geography as a Discipline
Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes, Branches of Geography; Physical Geography and Human Geography
Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth, Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics, Earthquakes and volcanoes: causes, types and effects.
Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics, Landforms and their evolution, Geomorphic processes: weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation.
Atmosphere- composition and structure; elements of weather and climate.
Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperature- factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.
Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones.
Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution.
World climates-classification (Koeppen and Thornthwaite), Global warming and climatic changes.
Climate and Global Concerns.
Basics of Oceanography, Oceans - distribution of temperature and salinity, Movements of ocean water-waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs, Ocean resources and pollution.
Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management
Floods, Cloudbursts, Droughts: types and impact, Earthquakes and Tsunami, Cyclones: features and impact, Landslides
Introduction to India
Location, space relations, India’s place in the world.
Physiography of India
Structure and Relief; Physiographic Divisions, Drainage systems: Concept of river basins, Watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.
Climate of India
Weather and climate - spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls: spatial and temporal; use of weather charts; Climatic types (Koeppen).
Vegetation of India
Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves.
Soils of India
Soils - major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.
People of India
Population-distribution, density and growth, Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change; Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;
Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries. Rural settlements - types and distribution, Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification
Land and agricultural Resources of India
Land resources - general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.
Water resources - availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods -rain water harvesting and watershed management.
Mineral and energy resources of India
Mineral and energy resources - distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.
Industries of India
Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatization and globalization on industrial location; industrial clusters.
Planning in India
Planning in India - target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).
Transport, Communication in India
Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.
International trade - changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.
Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems
Environmental pollution; urban - waste disposal.
Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.
Fundamentals of Maps
Geo spatial data, Concept of Geographical data matrix; Point, line, area data.
Maps - types; scales-types;construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding direction and use of symbols.
Map projection - Latitude, longitude and time, typology, construction and properties of projection: Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator’s projection. (only two projections)
Topographic and Weather Maps
Topographic maps; contour cross section and identification of landforms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution of settlements.
Aerial Photographs: Types and Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps and aerial photographs; photo scale determination. Identification of physical and cultural features.
Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform and sensors and data products, (photographic and digital).
Early Societies, Empires, Changing Traditions, Towards Modernisation, Bricks, Beads and Bones, The Harappan Civilisation, Kings, Farmers and Towns, Early States and Economies (c.600 BCE-600 CE), Kinship, Caste and Class- Early Societies (600 BCE-600 CE); Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Cultural Developments (600 BCE- 600CE); Through The Eyes Of Travellers: Perceptions of Society (tenth to seventeenth centuries); Bhakti –Sufi Traditions: Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts (eighth to eighteenth centuries); An Imperial Capital: Vijayanagara (fourteenth to sixteenth centuries); Peasants, Zamindars and The State: Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire (sixteenth-seventeenth centuries); Kings and Chronicles: The Mughal Courts (c. sixteenth-seventeenth centuries); Colonialism and The Countryside: Exploring Official Archives; Rebels and The Raj, 1857 Revolt and its Representations; Mahatma Gandhi and The Nationalist Movement: Civil Disobedience and Beyond; Understanding Partition: Politics, Memories, Experiences; Framing the Constitution: The Beginning of a New Era; New India: Nation Building, World War; Cold war; USSR disintegration; UNO
Changing Trends in Physical Education
Define Physical Education, Its Aims & Objectives;
Development of Physical Education - Post Independence;
Concept & Principles of Integrated Physical Education;
Concept & Principles of Adaptive Physical Education;
Special Olympic Bharat
Career in Physical Education
Career Options In Physical Education;
Eligibility and qualification;
Professional courses and institutions
Physical Fitness, Wellness & Lifestyle
Meaning & Importance of Physical Fitness, Wellness & Lifestyle;
Components of physical fitness;
Components of wellness;
Preventing Health Threats through Lifestyle Change;
Components of Positive Lifestyle
Meaning & Importance of Yoga;
Yoga as an Indian Heritage;
Elements of Yoga
Introduction to - Asanas, Pranayam, Mediation & Yogic Kriyas;
Physiological benefits of Asana & Pranayam;
Prevention & Management of Common Lifestyle Diseases; Obesity, Asthma, Diabetes, Hyper-tension & Back-Pain
Physical Activity Environment
Introduction to physical activity;
Concept & need of sports environment;
Essential elements of positive sports environment;
Principles of physical activity environment
Components of health related fitness;
Behaviour change technique for physical activity;
Exercise Guidelines at different stages of growth
Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology
Define Anatomy, Physiology & Its Importance;
Function of Skeleton System, Classification of Bones & Types of Joints;
Properties of Muscles;
Function & Structure of Muscles;
Function & Structure of Respiratory System, Mechanism of Respiration;
Structure of Heart & Introduction to Circulatory System;
Oxygen debt, second-wind
Fundamentals of Psychology & Sports
Definition & Importance of Psychology in Physical Education & Sports;
Define & Differentiate Between Growth & Development;
Developmental Characteristics at Different Stage of Development;
Adolescent Problems & Their Management
Learning and its laws
Define Learning, Laws of Learning & Transfer of Learning;
Plateau & causes of plateau;
Emotion: Concept & controlling of emotion
Training in Sports
Meaning & Concept of Sports Training;
Principles of Sports Training;
Warming up & limbering down
Sports & Nutrition
Balanced Diet & Nutrition: Macro & Micro Nutrients;
Nutritive & Non-Nutritive Components of Diet;
Eating Disorders – Anorexia Nervosa & Bulemia;
Effects of Diet on Performance;
Eating For Weight Control – A Healthy Weight, the Pitfalls Of Dieting, Food Intolerance & Food Myths; Sports nutrition (fluid & meal intake, pre, during & post competition)
Concept of Correct Postures - Standing and Sitting;
Advantages of Correct Posture;
Causes of bad posture;
Common Postural Deformities - Knock Knee; Flat Foot; Round Shoulders; Lordosis, Kyphosis, Bow Legs and Scolioses;
Physical Activities as Corrective Measures
Women & Sports
Sports participation of women in India, Special consideration (Menarch, Disfunction, Pregnancy, Menopause), Female Athletes Triad (Oestoperosis & Amenoria), Sociological aspects of sports participation, Ideology.
Physiology & Sports
Gender differences in physical & physiological parameters.;
Physiological factor determining component of Physical Fitness;
Effect of exercise on Cardio Vascular System;
Effect of exercise on Respiratory System;
Effect of exercise on Muscular System;
Physiological changes due to ageing;
Role of physical activity maintaining functional fitness in aged population
Concept & definition;
Aims & scope of sports medicine;
Impact of surfaces & environment on athletes;
Sports injuries: Classification, Causes & Prevention;
Management of Injuries
Soft Tissue Injuries:
(Abrasion, Contusion, Laceration, Incision, Sprain & Strain);
Bone & Joint Injuries:
(Dislocation, Fractures: Stress Fracture, Green Stick, Communated, Transverse Oblique & Impacted)
Introduction: What is Psychology?, Understanding Mind and Behavior, Popular Notions about the Discipline of Psychology, Evolution of Psychology, Development of Psychology in India, Branches of Psychology, Themes of Research and Applications, Psychology and Other Disciplines, Psychologists at Work, Psychology in Everyday Life.
Methods of Psychology: Goals of Psychological Enquiry, Steps in Conducting Scientific Research, Alternative Paradigms of Research, Nature of Psychological Data, Some Important Methods in Psychology and Ethical Issues; Biological bases of behavior, Structure and Functions of Nervous System.
Heredity: Genes and Behavior, Socio-Cultural Shaping of Behavior, Concept of Culture; Life span development, Sensations, Perception, Learning and applications of Learning Principles; Memory, Forgetting, Thinking, Problem solving, Thought and Language, Communication, Motivation, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Emotions; Facets of development; Intelligence; Personality; Psychological Disorders; Therapeutic approaches; Introduction to creativity; Nature, Types and Sources of Stress; Attitude; Psychology and life; Human Influence on the Environment; Counselling; Social influence and group process; Various Schools of psychology; Social cognition; Self and Personality.
Basics concepts of society and Sociology, Understanding Social institutions, Culture and Socialisation process, Indian society: Demographic and structural realities, Patterns of social inequality and exclusion, Social change and continuity.
Social Stratification: caste, class and gender
Contemporary Social issues: Poverty, unemployment and over-population
Politics in India since Independence:
Nehru’s approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of ’refugee’ resettlement, Five year plan- the Kashmir problem. Organization and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language. National Emergency, liberalization of Indian economy.
Constitution of India:
Basic features of the Indian constitution, Preamble, Fundamental rights and its importance, Directive principles of state policy, Role of judiciary to protect fundamental rights. Role of Supreme Court and High court in judicial System. Supreme Court as the guardian of constitution.
The structure and functioning of Indian government:
Indian Parliament, Role of the President, Role of the Prime Minister, Union cabinet, Governor, Role of the Chief Minister, State legislative assembly, Judicial system in India.
Cold War Era, The End of Bipolarity and U.S hegemony in World affairs:
First world war-Second world war- Emergence of two power blocs after the Second World War. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non Aligned Movement, India and the cold war. Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post-communist regimes. India’s relations with Russia and other post-communist countries, Growth of unilateralism: Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India’s renegotiation of its relationship with the USA, Act east policy and Look east policy.
International and regional Organizations:
Restructuring and the future of the UN, India’s position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic organizations, NGOs. SAARC, BRICS, ASEAN.
Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalization. Anti-globalization movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggle against it.
Atomic Structure, States of Matter & Thermodynamics
Some basic concepts in chemistry: Matter and its nature, Dalton’s
atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities
and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures,
S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular
masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular
formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
States of matter: Classification of matter into solid, liquid and
Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws - Boyle’s
law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial
pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic
theory of gases; Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities;
Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals
equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants.
Liquid State: Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity
and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent
and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg’s Law and its applications;
Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations
involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and
Atomic structure: Discovery of sub-atomic particles (electron, proton and neutron), Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their
limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum
of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of the
relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations
of Bohr’s model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty
principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom,
its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions;
Variation of Ψ and Ψ2 , with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal,
angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of
s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling
electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s
rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half- filled and
completely filled orbitals.
Chemical bonding and molecular structure: Kossel - Lewis approach
to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds. Ionic Bonding:
Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation
of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole
moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory
- Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals;
Molecular Orbital Theory: Its important features, LCAOs, types
of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital
electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order,
bond length and bond energy. Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding
and its applications.
Chemical thermodynamics: Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System
and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of
First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy
and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation;
Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation,
phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; ∆S of the universe and ∆G of the system
as criteria for spontaneity, ∆G0 (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium
Solutions, Chemical Kinetics & Surface Chemistry
Solutions: Different methods for expressing concentration of solution
- molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour
pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure
- composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of
dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing
point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular
mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor
and its significance.
Equilibrium: Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid
- gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characteristics of equilibrium
involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium,
equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of ∆G and ∆Go in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of
electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted - Lowry and
Lewis) and their ionization, acid – base equilibria (including multistage ionization)
and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis
of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility
products, buffer solutions.
Redox reactions and Electrochemistry: Electronic concepts of oxidation
and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation
number, balancing of redox reactions. Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance
in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation
with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different
types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential,
half - cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst
equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy
change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells; Corroison and its prevention.
Chemical Kinetics: Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting
the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary
and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant
and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions,
their characteristics and half - lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions
– Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular
gaseous reactions (no derivation).
Surface chemistry: Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption
and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids - Freundlich
and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions. Catalysis- Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloidal State -
distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids-lyophilic,
lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation
and properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis,
dialysis, coagulation and ﬂocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
Hydrogen & s - Block Element
Classiﬁcation of elements and periodicity in properties: Modern
periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements,
periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy,
electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
General principles and processes of isolation of metals: Modes
of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction
of metals - concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining
with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn & Fe; Thermodynamics and
electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
Hydrogen: Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties
& uses of hydrogen; Physical & Chemical properties of water & Heavy Water; Structure,
preparation, reactions & uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial, Hydrogen as a fuel.
s - Block elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals) Group - 1 and 2 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and
chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each
group, diagonal relationships. Preparation and properties of some important compounds
- sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster
of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
p, d & f block Elements and Environmental Chemistry
p - Block elements
Group – 13 to Group – 18 Elements: General Introduction: Electronic
configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements
across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in
each group. GroupWise study of the p – block elements.
Group – 13: Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium;
structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron tri- ﬂuoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group – 14: Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties & uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Group – 15: Properties & uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic
forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ammonia, nitric
acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids
of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Group – 16: Preparation, properties, structures & uses of dioxygen and ozone;
Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparations, properties, structures & uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric
acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group - 17: Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid;
Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of interhalogen compounds
and oxides & oxoacids of halogens.
Group – 18: Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of ﬂuorides
and oxides of xenon.
d – and f – Block elements: Transition Elements: General introduction,
electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties
of the first row transition elements - physical properties, ionization enthalpy,
oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties,
complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties
and uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4 .
Inner Transition Elements: Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration,
oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction. Actinoids - Electronic configuration
and oxidation states.
Co-ordination Compounds: Introduction to Co-ordination compounds,
Werner’s theory; ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature
of mononuclear co- ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach
and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance
of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
Environmental chemistry: Environmental pollution- Atmospheric,
water and soil.
Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon,
nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention;
Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain; Particulate pollutants: Smoke,
dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
Stratospheric pollution: Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion
of ozone layer -its mechanism and effects. Water Pollution - Major pollutants such
as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and
prevention. Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,
Herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to
control environmental pollution.
Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry
Puriﬁcation and characterization of organic compounds: Puriﬁcation: Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography
- principles and their applications.
Qualitative analysis: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus
Quantitative analysis (Basic Principles only): Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen,halogens,
sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae;
Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
Some basic principles of organic chemistry: Tetravalency of carbon;
Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic
compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C ≡ C – and those containing
halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC) Covalent bond ﬁssion: Homolytic
and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations
and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond - Inductive effect,
electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Hydrocarbons: Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties & reactions.
Common types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane);
Mechanism of halogenations of Alkanes.
Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition:
addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide
effect); Ozonolysis, oxidation and polymerization.
Alkynes - Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water
and hydrogen halides; Polymerization
Aromatic hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, benzene - structure and aromaticity;
Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenations, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s
alkylation and acylation, directive inﬂuence of functional group in mono- substituted
Organic compounds containing halogens: General methods of preparation,
properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform, freons and DDT.
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Polymers & Bio molecules
Organic compounds containing Oxygen: General methods of preparation,
properties, reactions and uses.
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols;
mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenations,
nitration and sulphonation, Reimer - Tiemann reaction.
Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition
to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions
such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its
derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen);
acidity of - hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction;
Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Carboxylic acids: Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
Organic compounds containing Nitrogen: General methods of preparation,
properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character
and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Polymers: General introduction and classification of polymers,
general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization; Natural
and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on
their monomers and uses - polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
Biomolecules: General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
Carbohydrates: Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides
(glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose,
lactose and maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen).
Proteins: Elementary Idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides;
Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea
only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins: Classification and functions.
Nucleic acids: Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological
functions of nucleic acids.
Chemistry in everyday life: Chemicals in medicines– Analgesics,
tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs,
antibiotics, antacids antihistamines-their meaning & common example.
Chemicals in food - Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents
- common examples.
Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Laws of motion: Force and Inertia, Newton’s First Law of motion;
Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion.
Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications; equilibrium of concurrent
forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics
of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.
Work, energy and power: Work done by a constant force and a variable
force; kinetic and potential energies, work energy theorem, power. Potential energy
of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative
forces; Elastic & inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Rotational motion: Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre
of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force,
torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications;
moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical
objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid
body rotation, equations of rotational motion.
Kinematics, Gravitation & Oscillations
Physics and measurement: Physics, technology and society, SI units,
Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring
instruments, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional
analysis and its applications.
Kinematics: Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time
graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non- uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous
velocity, uniformly accelerated motion, velocity- time, position-time graphs, relations
for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction,
Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative
Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.
Gravitation: The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due
to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Kepler’s laws of planetary
motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity.
Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
Oscillations and waves: Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement
as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its
equation; phase; Oscillations of a spring - restoring force and force constant;
energy in S.H.M. : kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum - derivation
of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance;
Wave motion; Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave; Displacement relation
for a progressive wave; Principle of superposition of waves, reﬂection of waves
Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats,
Doppler effect in sound.
Properties of solids and liquids: Elastic behaviour, Stress- strain
relationship, Hooke’s Law, Young’s modulus, Bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure
due to a ﬂuid column; Pascal’s law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokes’ law,
terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent ﬂow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli’s principle
and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application
of surface tension - drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal
expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat
transfer conduction, convection and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling.
Thermodynamics: Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics,
concept of temperature. Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics.
Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine
and its efficiency.
Kinetic theory of gases: Equation of state of a perfect gas, work
done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure.
Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom,
Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases;
Mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
Electricity & Magnetism
Electrostatics: Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s
law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition
principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field: Electric field due
to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to
a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric ﬂux, Gauss’s
law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged
straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin
spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric
dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy
of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators,
Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series
and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric
medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.
Current electricity: Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law,
Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of
Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity,
Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature
dependence of resistance. Electric Cell and its internal resistance, potential difference
and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws
and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle
and its applications.
Magnetic effects of current and magnetism: Biot - Savart law and
its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications
to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving
charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying
conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying
conductors- definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform
magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion
to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole
moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic
field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances. Magnetic
susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
Atomic Structure & Optics
Atoms and nuclei: Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s
model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size
of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta
and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy
relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number,
nuclear fission and fusion.
Dual nature of matter and radiation: Dual nature of radiation.
Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric
equation; particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie
relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
Optics: Reﬂection and refraction of light at plane and spherical
surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reﬂection and its applications, Deviation
and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens,
Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reﬂecting
and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws of reﬂection
and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double
slit experiment and expression for fringe width. Diffraction due to a single slit,
width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes,
Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized
light and Polaroids.
Electrical & Electronics
Electromagnetic induction and alternating currents: Electromagnetic
induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self
and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/
voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor,
power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.
Electromagnetic waves: Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics.
Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves,
microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X- rays, gamma rays). Applications of
Electronic devices: Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics
in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode,
solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor,
transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common
emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Transistor as a switch. Communication systems: Propagation of electromagnetic waves
in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude
and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium,
Basic Elements of a Communication System.
Sets, relations and functions: Sets and their representation; Union,
intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation,
Types of relations, equivalence relations; Functions, oneone, into and onto functions,
composition of functions.
Complex numbers and quadratic equations: Complex numbers as ordered
pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation
in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or
amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality,
Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation
between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations
with given roots.
Sequences and series: Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion
of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M.
and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: Geometric
Matrices, Vectors & Reasoning
Matrices & Determinants: Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of
matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three, Adjoint, transpose, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices, Properties of determinants,
evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. evaluation
of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations,
Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three
variables using determinants and matrices.
Vector algebra: Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components
of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products,
scalar and vector triple product.
Mathematical reasoning: Statements, logical operations and, or,
implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction,
converse and contrapositive.
Permutation-Combinations & Binomial Theorem
Permutations and Combinations: Fundamental principle of counting,
permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of P (n, r)
and C (n, r), simple applications.
Mathematical induction: Principle of Mathematical Induction and
its simple applications.
Binomial theorem and its simple applications: Binomial theorem
for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of Binomial
coefficients and simple applications.
Limit, Integration & Differentiation
Limit, continuity and differentiability: Real valued functions,
algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential
functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and
differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient
of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic,
exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle’s
and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change
of quantities, monotonic increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima
of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.
Integral calculus: Integral as an anti derivative. Fundamental
integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.
Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using
trigonometric identities. Evaluation of simple integrals of the type:
Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite
integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded
by simple curves in standard form. Differential equations: Ordinary differential
equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution
of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of
homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type:
Coordinate geometry: Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates
in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation
of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line
on the coordinate axes.
Straight lines: Various forms of equations of a line, intersection
of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance
of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between
two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle,
equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.
Circles, conic sections: Standard form of equation of a circle,
general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle
when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and
a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to
a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections
(parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to
be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.
Three Dimensional Geometry: Coordinates of a point in space, distance
between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle
between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and
its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of
a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
Probability & Trigonometry
Statistics and probability: Measures of Dispersion: Calculation
of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation,
variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.
Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication
theorems of probability, Baye’s theorem, probability distribution of a random variate,
Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.
Trigonometry: Trigonometrical Identities and equations, Trigonometrical
functions, Inverse trigonometric function: Definition, domain, range, elementary properties of inverse trignometric functions, Heights and Distances.
Grammar: Parts of speech – Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Adverb, Verb, Preposition, Conjunction Interjection; Tenses – Present, Past and Future Tense in Active and Passive Form; Modal Verbs – Can, Could, May, might, Should, Will, would.
Associative Language Skills: Vocabulary – Antonyms, Synonyms, one-word substitution, Word Analogies, Idioms and Phrases
Common Errors: Sentence Correction and Error Finding Exercises
Comprehension Passages: Closed and Open paragraphs, identifying key ideas or theme.