Grammar: Parts of speech – Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Adverb, Verb, Preposition, Conjunction Interjection; Tenses – Present, Past and Future Tense in Active and Passive Form; Modal Verbs – Can, Could, May, might, Should, Will, Would, punctuation, independent and dependent clauses, sentence and its types, determiners
Associative Language Skills: Vocabulary – Antonyms, Synonyms, Homonyms, Homographs, one-word substitution, Word Analogies, Idioms and Phrases.
Common Errors : Sentence Correction and Error Finding Exercises
Comprehension Passages :Closed and Open paragraphs, identifying key ideas or theme.
Basic concepts of chemistry: Elements, Uses of elements, Extraction of elements, Chemical formula of elements, Periodic table.
Atomic Structure: History of atom and its structure, Electron, Proton, Neutron, Different models of atomic structure(Rutherford’s and Bohr’s model of atom, limitations of Bohr’s model of atom, Wave particle duality and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) , Atomic number, Atomic mass, Molecular mass, Mass Number, Isotopes, Isobars, Isotones.
Chemical Solution: Different phases of solution, Homogeneous mixture, Heterogeneous mixture, Equilibrium state and its significance, Law of mass action, Law of chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant (K), Electrolytes, non electrolytes, ionization in aqueous solutions, degree of ionization and ionic product of water (Kw), Concept of pH scale, industrial applications of pH and simple numerical related to pH, Concepts of acids and bases, neutralization, Acid base titrations, indicators and choice of indicators for acid base titrations, Buffer solutions and its types, applications of buffer solution
Welding technology: Welding process, Types of welding, Uses of welding, Electric arc welding, TIG, MIG, Resistance welding, Submerged arc welding, Gas welding, Industrial applications.
Electronics: PN diode, Rectifiers (half wave full wave), Zener diode, Basic filters and its types (capacitor filter, inductor filter, LC filter and pie filter).
Electrical Engineering: Faraday’s Laws of electromagnetic induction, Lenz’s law, Fleming’s Right and Left Hand Rule, Principle of self and mutual induction, Inductances in series and parallel, Energy stored in a magnetic field, Concept of eddy currents and eddy current loss, Function of transformer, Electric motor, Types of motor.
Units and dimensions: Units and dimensions- physical quantities, fundamental units, S.I units, dimensions of a physical quantity, dimensional formulas, Derived units (with special reference to pressure, volume, temperature, density, specific gravity, surface tension, viscosity and conductivity).
Metallurgy: Extraction of pure iron from its chief ore, Extraction of copper from its chief ore, Extraction of aluminium from its chief ore, Manufacture of wrought iron, steel by open hearth process and L.D. process, Alloys- types of alloys (ferrous and non ferrous) purposes of alloying, Composition, properties and applications of – invar steel, nichrome, stain less steel, alnico, Composition, properties and applications of- germen silver, brass, bronze, gun metal, duralumin, magnalium and solder, Definition, classification, composition, advantages and industrial applications of composites materials
Fuels: Definition of fuel, combustion, classification of fuels, characteristics of good fuel, merits and demerits of gaseous fuels over solid and liquid fuels, Calorific value, - HCV, LCV and relation between both, determination of calorific value by Bomb calorimeter, and Dulong’s formula (equation to be assumed, numerical problems), Coal and proximate analysis of coal, Bergius process of converting coal into gasoline, power alcohol – advantages and disadvantages, Fuel rating: octane and cetane numbers influence of chemical composition and structure on fuel quality,Gaseous fuels: chemical composition usefulness and limitations of natural gas, CNG, producer gas, water gas and carbureted water gas, coal gas, oil gas LPG and biogas (manufacturing details are excluded).
Logarithms: Basics and properties of logarithms, Applications of properties of logarithms in solving problems related to basic logarithmic formulas, Geometrical progression.
Trigonometry: T-Ratios of Allied angles (without proof), T-Ratios of Sum of angles formulae (without proof), T-Ratios of difference of angles formulae(without proof), Applications of T-Ratios of Allied angles, Sum, difference formulae, Product formulae, Applications of Trigonometric terms in engineering problems such as to find an angle of elevation , height, distance.
Fundamental Of Computers: History, Computer parts, Hardware, Software, Input/Output units of computer, CPU, MS Office.
Physics: Units, Dimension, Force, Motion, Laws of Motion, Friction, Scalar quantity, Vector quantity, Applications of various forces in lifting, Gravitation force.
Digital Electronics: Binary Number System, micro-computers basics, Basic logic gate truth table and symbols, RS flip-flop, Delay flip-flop.
Electrical Quantities and Units: Basic concept of charge, current, voltage, resistance, power, energy and their units, Conversion of units of work, power and energy from one form to another.
Alternating Current Vs Direct Current: Ohm’s law, Resistances in series and parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws, Concept of a.c. generation (single phase and three phase), Difference between a.c and d.c, Concept of alternating current and voltage.
Semiconductor: Concept of insulators, Concept of conductors, Concept of semiconductors, Atomic structure of silicon and germanium, N type semiconductors, P type semiconductors. Concept of capacitor and dielectric mediums.
General Science: Green house effect, inventions and inventors, Solid, liquid, gases.
Mechanical Measurements: Standards of Measurements, Types of Errors:Controllable and Random Error, Precision, accuracy, sensitivity, hystersis, response time, repeatability,calibration, uncertainty of measurement, interchangability, Standardization and standardizing organisations, Vernier Calliper, Micrometer.
Numbers: Natural number, whole number, integer, even number, odd number, prime number, Composite numbers, co-primes.
Components of Computer: Components of PC, The system unit, Front part of system Unit Back part of system Unit
CPU and Memory: CPU (Central Processing Unit) and Memory of computer
Computer Peripherals: Monitor Mouse, Keyboard, Disk, Printer, Scanner, Modem, Video, Sound cards, Speakers
Familiarity with Windows 2000/XP: Working with window, Desktop Components of window, Menu bar option
Navigating in Windows: Starting window getting familiar with desktop Moving from one window to another Reverting windows to its previous size
Working with Windows and Shortcuts: Opening task bar buttons into a windows creating shortcut of program Quitting windows
GUI based applications: Application Using MS Office 2000 & Open Office.Org Menus
Working with menus: Menus Opening of menus, Toolbars: standard toolbars, formatting toolbars & closing of menus Quitting Document, Editing & designing your document
Spreadsheets and working with Excel: Spreadsheets Working & Manipulating data with Excel, Changing the layout
Graphs in PowerPoint Presentations: Working with simple graphs & Presentation, Working With PowerPoint and Presentation
Internet and its Requirements: What is Internet, Equipment Required for Internet connection
Email and WWW: Sending &receiving Emails, Browsing the WWW
Creating Email account, Chatting: Creating own Email Account, Internet chatting
Computer Applications in various Domains: Computer application in Offices, book publication, data analysis, accounting, investment, inventory control, graphics
Managing and Analysing Data: Use in database management, Instrumentation, Airline and railway ticket reservation, robotics, artificial intelligence
Usage of computer in other domains: Use in military, banks, design and research work, real-time, point of sale terminals, financial transaction terminals.
Impact of Computers: Impact of computer on society Social responsibilities
Use of IT: Applications of IT, Impact of IT
Ethics and information technology: Ethics and information technology
Future with IT: Future with information technology
Real numbers Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic - Proofs of results - irrationality of √2, √3, √5, decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals.
Polynomials Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.
Pair of linear equations in two variables Pair of linear equations in two variables and their graphical solution. Geometric representation of different possibilities of solutions/inconsistency.
Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically - by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication method. Simple situational problems. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations.
Triangles Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.
Introduction to trigonometry Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence motivate the ratios whichever are defined at 0° and 90°. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30°, 45° and 60°.
Statistics Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph.
Quadratic equations Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2+bx+c=0, (a ≠ 0). Solution of the quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization, by completing the square and by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. Situational problems based on quadratic equations.
Arithmetic Progressions Arithmetic Progression, Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving problems.
Circles Tangents to a circle by chords drawn from points.
Trigonometrical Identities: Relationships between the ratios. Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.
Heights and distances: Problems on heights and distances. Angles of elevation / depression.
Probability: Classical definition of probability, problems on single events.
Lines Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula. Section formula (internal division). Area of a triangle.
Areas related to circles: Area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the plane figures. (Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle.)
Surface areas and volumes (i) Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone.
(ii) Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems.
Numbers, Percentage, Profit, Loss & Discount, Ratio & Proportion, Simple & Compound Interest, Permutation& Combination & Probability, Time & Distance, Boats & streams, Races & Games, Time & Work, Pipes & Cistern, Calendar & Clocks, Area, Series completion & Coding – Decoding & Alphabet test, Direction sense test & Blood relations &arrangements, Syllogism, Number, Ranking & Time sequence test, Arithmetical reasoning, Inserting the missing character, Data sufficiency, Cubes and dice, Non-verbal reasoning.
Indian History, Indian Politics, Indian Economy, Financial and Economic News, Budget and National Plans, Who is Who, Sports Events, Books and Authors, Awards & Honours, Science Invention and Discoveries, Abbreviations, Important Days and Weeks, International and National Organizations, Current National and International Affairs.
Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Refraction: Laws of refraction, refractive index, Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens, Functioning of a lens in human eye, Defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses, Refraction of light through a prism, Dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
Effects of current: Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic effects of current: Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule. Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current: frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Sources of energy: Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; Nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources of Energy.
Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale(Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris
Metals and non-metals: Properties of metals and non-metals, reactivity series, formation and properties of ionic compounds, basic metallurgical processes, corrosion and its prevention.
Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements: Need for classification, Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.
Life processes: "Living being", Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals. Tropic movements in plants, Introduction to plant hormones, control and co-ordination in animals: nervous system; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
Reproduction: Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need for and methods of family planning. safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
Heredity and evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Conservation of natural resources: Management of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life, coal and petroleum conservation. Examples of People’s participation for conservation of natural resources.
The Regional environment and our environment: Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives if any, Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources. Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.
Attitude, External Awareness, Customer Experience, Communication, Influence, Interpersonal Skills, Stress Management, Adaptability, Accountability, Leadership, Results Oriented, Conflict Resolution, Initiative, Customer Acquisition, Creative Thinking, Professionalism, Change Management.
Visualization and spatial ability
Natural & Geometrical Form, 2D and 3D visualisation, Transformation and/or manipulation of 2D shapes and 3D objects, Spatial relationships between different 2D or 3D shapes, Knowledge of practical and everyday mechanical and scientific concepts, Use of measurements, scale & proportions, Foreshortening & perspective.
Observation and design sensitivity
Design Awareness, Creative thinking, Elements & Principles Of Design, Detecting concealed properties in ordinary things, people, situations, and events and thinking critically about them, Discerning subtle differences in visual properties and aesthetic outcomes.
Analytical and logical reasoning
Story pictures, Motifs, Discerning patterns within qualitative or quantitative information, Weighing opinions, arguments or solutions against appropriate criteria, Use of logic and structured thinking to deduce from a given short passage, which of a number of statements is the most accurate response to a posed question.
Design thinking and problem solving
Analysis and usage of visual analogies and metaphors, Imagination & Doodling, Analysis and usage of signs and symbols, Generate alternatives, evaluate options and select solutions for a given problem.
Color, its principles and theory
Understanding Light & Shade, Colour Terminology, Mood, theme & colour inter – relationship, Colour Psychology, Colour, Pattern & Texture, Optical Illusion, Usage of colour in Compositions.
Dravyaguna (Ayurvediya Ausadha Gunadharma Shastra)
Introduction and Classification of Dravyaguna and Dravya, Rasa and its types, Guna and its Classification, Veerya, Vipak, Prabhav, Karma, Nomenclature and Synonyms of Drugs, Varga (Jala, Madhu, Mutra), Combination and Incompatibility of Dravya, Animal origin drugs (Kasturi, Mrigshring, Shankha, Mukta, Sukti, Varatika, Praval), Plant origin drugs (Vatsanabh, Bibhitaki, Lajallu, Ativisha, Amalaki, Shirish, Guduchi, Arka, Daruharidra, Ashoka, Katuki, Ahiphena, Kupillu, Brahmi,Vasa, Ashwagandha, Haritaki, Dhatura, Punarnava, Gokshur, Aragvadha, Bakuchi, Gunja, Kachanar, Mandukparni, Hingu, Tulsi).
Fundamentals of Roga Nidaan Evam Chikitsa
Definition and Classification of diseases, Concept of Nidaan Panchaka, Concept of Samprapti- classification and importance, Concept of Kriya Kaal- classification and importance, Concept of Aama and its importance, Concept of Roga Pariksha (Trividha and Dashvidha), Concept of Srotodushti- characteristics, causes and importance, Concept of Dosha, Dhatu and Mala Dushti- characteristics, causes and importance, Introduction to Janpadodhvansa Vyadhi (Epidemics), Aupsargika roga and Sansargaja roga (infectitious and communicable diseases), Definition of Chikitsa- classification (Daivyavyapashraya etc), Concept of Chikitsa Chatushpada, Chikitsa Upkrama- dwividha and shadvidha, Saptavidha, Vranopkrama, Ashtvidha Shastrakarma, Concept of Panchkarma and its importance, General principles of management of Dosha, Dhatu, Mala and Srotodushti.
Definition of Sharir, Shadanga Sharir, Introduction to Pratyangas, Garbhavkranti Shaarir (monthly development of garbha), Structure of cell and its functions, General introduction of Dhatus and Updhatus- their importance and functions, General introduction of Systems of the body, Bones- structure, composition and types, Location, measurement and external features of the viscera of digestive, respiratory, urinary and cardiovascular system, General concept of Indriya- Ayurvedic and Modern view, Concept of Dosha- its classification, characteristics, functions, Description of Deha (Doshaja), Prakriti, importance of Doshas for physiological functions, Nourishment of Dhatus with different Nyayas, Concept of Mala- classification, characteristics, functions and importance, Concept of Agni- classification, importance and role in digestion, Concept of Ojas- classification, functions and importance, Concept of Rakta Dhatu- classification, characteristics and importance.
Definition and importance of Swasthvritta, Concept of Swastha Purush, Concept of Dincharya, Ratricharya, Ritucharya, Concept of Dhaaraniya and Adhaaraniya Vega, Concept of Nindit and Anindit Purush, Ahar Vidhi Visheshayatan, Balanced diet – its components ( proteins , carbohydrates , fats , vitamins , minerals etc). Pathya and Apathya, Water – importance, sources, impurities and its purification, Definition of Yoga. , Concept of Yam, Niyam, Asana and Pranayama, Asanas-Shirshaasana, Pawanmuktaasana, Vajraasana, Dhanurasana, Padmasana, Chakrasana, Gomukhasana, Matasyasana, Concept of Shatkarma and Prakritika Chikitsa.
Prathmik upchar evam rogi paricharya
Meaning of Prathmic Upchar & Rogi Paricharya. Concept of First Aid, Artificial Respiration, Types of Bandaging & Suturing, Different routes of Administration of Injections, Sharp & Blunt Instruments, Concept of Sterilization, Wounds & Fractures: types & treatment.
Rasashastra and bhaishajya kalpana or ayurvediya aushadh nirman shastra
Chronological development of Rasa shastra, Bhaishajya kalpana and Rasashala (pharmacy), Paribhasik shabd, Parad (rasa), Maharasa varga, Uprasa varga, Sadharanrasa varga, Sikta varga, Sudha varga, Dhatu varga and Updhatu varga, Ratna varga and Upratna varga, Visopavisa varga, Kshar kalpana, Lavan kalpana, Parpati kalpana, Pottali kalpana, Sindoor kalpana, Basti kalpana, Adharbhoot sidhyanta of Bhaisajya kalpana (basic principle), Nasya kalpana - Netra kalpana - Mukha kalpana, Introduction, definition, preparatory method, dosage and therapeutic indications of the Kalpas - Sneha kalpana, Sandhana kalpana, Arka kalpana, Avaleha kalpana etc.
Equipments & Instruments used: Principle, application, care and
maintenance of hot air oven, autoclave, laminar air flow, incubator, centrifuge and water bath.
Culture Media: Preparation and use of nutrient agar, nutrient broth, Mac-conkey agar, blood agar and chocolate agar.
Sterilization: Introduction, principle and applications of different types of Sterilization Method.
Blood: Composition, structure and functions of RBC’s, WBC’s, Platelets and their reference values.
Collection of Blood: Capillary blood, venous blood, arterial blood, preparation of serum and plasma.
ABO and Rh Blood Grouping: Preparation of red cell suspension, preparation of pooled cells, Rh blood grouping, forward & reverse grouping by slide and tube method.
Selection and Rejection of Donor: Selection, rejection and screening of donor.
Diagnostic Tests: Estimation of blood urea, creatinine, clearance tests, serum totalproteins, serum bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides.
Enzyme Assay: Principle, procedure, clinical importance and reference values of SGOT, SGPT, ACP and amylase.
History of profession of Pharmacy in India in relation to Pharmacy Education, Industry and Associations, Pharmacy as a career, Pharmacopoeia, Prescription, Posology, Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Capsule, Liquid oral preparations, Topical preparations, Powders and granules, Nasal preparations, Powders and granules, Sterile formulations, Pharmaceutical Aerosols, Immunological products, Quality assurance, Packaging materials, Pharmaceutical aids, Novel drug delivery systems. Social Pharmacy, Health-WHO, National Health Policy, Preventive care, Vaccines and immunizations, Psychosocial Pharmacy, Nutrition and Health, Genetically modified foods, Health Promotion and Health education, Epidemiology of Communicable Diseases, Respiratory infections, Intestinal infections, Arthropod-borne infections, Surface infections, Disaster management, Community Pharmacy Practice, Prescription and prescription handling, Patient counselling, Patient Package Insert, Communication skills, Patient interview techniques, Medication Adherence, Health Screening services, Over The Counter (OTC) medications, Community Pharmacy Management, Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of Pharmacy management, Hospital Pharmacy, Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committee, Hospital Formulary, Supply chain & Inventory Control, Drug distribution, Radio Pharmaceuticals, Clinical Pharmacy, Daily activities of Clinical Pharmacist, Pharmaceutical care, Drugs and Poison information services, Clinical laboratory tests, Drugs and Poison information services, Pharmacovigilance, Medication errors, Drug Interactions, Poisoning, Medical and Surgical devices, Pharmacy Act-1948 & Rules, Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945 & New Amendments, Medicinal and Toilet Preparations Act 1955, Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act 1985 and Rules, Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act 1955, Prevention of cruelty to Animals Act-1960, Poisons Act-1919, Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules, National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority, Code of Pharmaceutical Ethics.
Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sources and types of Errors, Impurities in Pharmaceuticals, Volumetric Analysis, Gravimetric Analysis, Inorganic Pharmaceuticals, Drugs acting on Central Nervous System, Drugs acting on Autonomic Nervous System, Cholinergic Drugs and related agents, Cholinergic Blocking agents, Drugs acting on Cardiovascular System, Diuretics, Hypoglycemic agents, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory agents, Anti-infective agents, Antiviral agents, Antimalarials, Urinary Tract Anti-infective agents, Antibiotics, Antifungal agents, Anti-neoplastic agents, Classification of Drugs, Quality control of Crude Drugs, Pharmacognostic of alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, volatile oils, tannins and resins, Biological source, Chemical constituents and therapeutic efficacy of the of crude drugs. Plant fibers used as surgical dressings, Basic principles involved in the alternative system of medicine likes. Method of preparation of Ayurvedic formulations in like, Herbs as health food, Herbal cosmetics.
Structure of Cell, Tissues of the human body, Osseous system, Haemopoetic system, Lymphatic system, Cardiovascular system, Respiratory system, Digestive system, Skeletal muscles, Nervous system, Sense organs, Urinary system, Endocrine system, Reproductive system, General Pharmacology, Drugs Acting on Peripheral Nervous System, Drugs Acting on Cardiovascular System, Drugs Acting on Blood and Blood Forming Organs, Drugs Acting on Gastro Intestinal Tract, Drugs Acting on Kidney, Hormones and Hormone Antagonists, Autocoids, Chemotherapy, Scope of Biochemistry in Pharmacy, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic acids, Enzymes, Vitamins, Metabolism, Minerals, Water and Electrolytes, Organ function tests, Pathology of Blood and Urine, Pharmacotherapeutics, Hypertension, Angina and Myocardial infarction, Hyperlipidemia, Congestive Heart Failure, Asthma ,COPD, Diabetes, Thyroid disorders- Hypo and Hyperthyroidism, Epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Stroke, Migraine, Gastro esophageal reflux disease, Acid Pepsin Disease, Alcoholic liver disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (Crohns disease and Ulcerative colitis), Infectious diseases, Musculoskeletal disorders, Dermatology, Optholmology, Women’s Health.