Syllabi of LPUNEST (PG Sciences)

Dravyaguna: History of dravyaguna, Classification of Dravya, Rasa-panchak, Karma, Jangam Dravya, Posology, Time of administration, Mishrak varga, Controversial drugs, Nighantus

Pharmacognosy: History, Carbohydrate, Tannins, Glycoside, Resins, Alkaloids, Cell inclusions, Drug evaluation, Volatile drugs, Marine drugs
Rasa-Shastra & Bhaishjya Kalpana: Rasa Shala including GMP, Paribhasha, Yantra- Musha & Puta, Rasa kalpa, Classification of Rasa dravya, Parada, Fundamental principles of B.K and Saveeryata, Panchvid Kasaya Kalpana, Dwatyka (Secondary) Kalpana, Mana

Analysis: T.L.C- H.P.T.L.C, H.P.L.C, Gas chromatography, Physico-chemical parameters, Standardization of Ayurvedic formulations, U.V Spectroscopy, I.R, N.M.R, Mass spectroscopy, Titration

Agronomy
Principles of Agronomy, crop ecology and geography and Agricultural Meteorology: Agronomy – meaning and scope, National & International agricultural research institutes in India, Agro climatic zones of India, Tillage, crop stand establishment and planting geometry and their effect on crop, Organic farming, precision farming, integrated farming systems, principles of field experimentation. Climate shift and its ecological implications, Agro- ecological regions in India, Climatic factors and their effect on crop productivity, weather & climate, Earth’s atmosphere, solar radiation, Atmospheric temperature and global warning.
Crops and atmospheric humidity, weather forecasting.

Field crops : Origin, distribution, economic importance, soil and climatic requirement, varieties, cultural practices and yield of cereals (rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, minor millets, barley), pulses (chickpea, lentil, peas, pigeon pea, mungbean, urdbean), oilseeds (groundnut, sesame, soybean, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, safflower, linseed), fiber crops (cotton, jute, sunnhemp), sugar crops (sugarcane), fodder & forage crops (sorghum, maize, napier, berseem, Lucerne, oats), and commercial crops (potato, tobacco).

Weed management: Principles of weed management, classification, biology and ecology of weeds, crop weed competition and allelopathy, concepts and methods of weed control, integrated weed management, classification, formulations, selectivity Application methods and equipments, special and problematic weeds and their management in cropped and non-cropped situations, weed management in field crops.

Soil fertility and fertilizer use: Essential plant nutrients and their deficiency symptoms, concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, indicators of soil fertility and productivity, fertilizer materials and their availability to plants, slow release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors, principles and methods of fertilizer application, integrated nutrient management, site specific nutrient management.

Dryland Agronomy: Characteristics of Dryland farming and delineation of Dryland tracts, constraints of Dryland farming in India, Types of drought and their management, contingency crop planning and mid-season corrections for aberrant weather and its recycling. Watershed management.

Entomology
Crop Protection Principles in field and storage. Major insect pests and diseases of agricultural crops like rice, cotton, pulses, oilseed crops like groundnut, soybean and mustard, vegetables like tomato, Cole crops; fruit crops like mango and banana and their management principles.
           
Classification of animal kingdom up to class level and the distinguishing characters up to orders in class insecta and the general organization of an insect external morphology with special reference to lepidopteron larvae, coleopteran adults; and honeybee; metamorphosis and moulting; different physiological systems; insect plant relationship; insect pests of agricultural and horticultural crops, and their stored/processed products, insect vectors of plant diseases- identification, biology, nature of damage, and their management tactics; and pests of household, medical and veterinary importance and their control; useful and beneficial insects like honeybee, lac insect, silkworm and pollinators. Cultural, biological, insecticidal, quarantine, and regulatory aspects; insecticide classification and insecticide resistance management; and insect protective transgenic crops

Plant Breeding & Genetics
Structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics; structure and functions of nucleic acids, Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, physical and chemical basis of heredity; chromosome structure; genes/operon concept; protein biosynthesis; transformation, recombination, Heterosis; elements of economic botany, Seed germination and dormancy; pollination/fertilization in flowering plant; methods of seed testing; breeders, foundation and certified seeds; seed production in self and cross pollinated crops, DUS testing & PPV & FR.

Plant Pathology
Important plant pathogenic organisms. History of Plant Pathology. Survival and Dispersal of Plant Pathogens. Phenomenon of infection. Pathogenesis, Defense mechanism, Epidemiology, Forecasting. Principles of plant diseases management and integrated disease management (IDM). Etiological agents: rusts, smuts, powdery/downy mildews, wilts, yellows, mosaic, necrosis, enations, blights and witches- broom.
Major diseases of rice, wheat, sugarcane, red gram, cotton, potato, chilli, onion and cucurbits.
 
Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry
Soil as a medium for plant growth, composition of earth`s crust, weathering of rocks and minerals, components of soil-their importance, soil profile, soil partials-physical mineralogical and chemical nature. Mechanical analysis, Stokes law, assumptions, limitation and applications. Soil, physical properties-density, porosity, texture, soil structure and their brief descriptions. Rheological properties in soils, calculations of porosity and bulk density. Soil air-Aeration, causes of poor aeration, factors affecting aeration, importance for plant growth. Soil temperature-sources and losses of soil heat. Factors affecting soil temperature, its importance in plant growth. Soil water-structure of water, soil-water-energy relationship, classifications, surface tension and movement in soil. Soil colloids-properties, structure of silicate clay minerals, sources of negative charges, properties, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and vermiculite clay minerals, milli-equivalent concept, cation exchange capacity, anion exchange capacity, buffering of soils. Problem soils- acid, saline, sodic and acid sulphate soils-their characteristics, formation, problems and management. Irrigation, water quality and its evaluation. Waterlogged soils- basic features, distinction with upland soils.
 
Essential plant nutrients- criteria of essentiality, functions for plant growth, mechanisms for movement and uptake of ions in soils and plants, Forms of nutrients in soils, deficiency symptoms on plants, luxury consumption, nutrient interaction and chelated micronutrients. Soil fertility, evaluation and management for plant growth, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations. Soil classification- diagnostic surface and sub-surface horizons, soil survey- objectives, uses, land capability classification. Remote sensing and its application in agriculture, SIS, GIS and GPS- basic features and uses in agriculture, Soil micro-organisms, classification and their roles. Organic matter-decomposition, C:N ratio, mineralization and immobilization processes, humus, role of organic matter in soil quality. Soil erosion, types and control measures. Fertilizers and manures – classifications, NPK fertilizers, their reactions in soil, green manuring, recycling of organic wastes, composting. Soil and water pollution- sources brief idea about different pollutants in soils and their managements.

Horticulture
Importance & scope of horticulture. Climatic zones of horticulture crops. Orchard establishment including high density planting. Propagation methods & root stocks. Training & pruning methods, use of PGR. Production technology of fruit crops (Mango, Banana, Papaya, Ber, Apple, Guava, Citrus, Custard apple)
Importance & scope of vegetables. Classification of Vegetables. Package of practices of vegetables (Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli, Okra, Cucumber, Bottle gourd, Sponge gourd, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Onion, Garlic, Potato, Palak, Carrot, Radish, Drumstick, Peas & Cowpea)
Establishment of Ornamental garden, uses of tree, shrubs, climbers & seasonal flowers in garden. Package of practices of Rose, Marigold and Chrysanthemum.
Importance & Scope of Post-Harvest Technology of Horticulture crops. Maturity indices, grading, packing & storage of fruits & vegetables. Importance & Scope of Fruit & Vegetable Preservation. Principles of preservation by heat, low temperature, chemicals & fermentation. Preservation methods by canning, bottling, freezing, drying & dehydration. Preparation of jams, jellies, candies, chutney, pickle, ketchup and squashes. Preservatives and colours permitted and prohibited in India.
 
Biotechnology
Importance of agriculture in national economy; principles of crop production: cultivation of rice, wheat chickpea pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato and mango Major soils of India role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. General structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics. Elementary knowledge of growth, development, photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration: Elements of economic botany. General structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management. Organic farming; bio-fertilizer; bio-pesticides. Recombinant DNA technology; transgenic crops. Ideotyping in agriculture crops.
Importance of biochemistry in agriculture Acid-base concept and buffers; PH. Classification, structure and metabolic functions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Structure and function of nucleic acids. Enzymes: structure nomenclature mechanism of action; vitamins and minerals as coenzymes and cofactors metabolic pathways: Metabolic pathways: glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation triglyceride biosynthesis. Electron transport chain; ATP formation. Photosynthesis: C-3 C-4 and CAM pathways. Nitrate assimilation; biological nitrogen fixation. Colorimetric and chromatographic techniques.
Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms differences between fungi, bacteria mycoplasms and viruses. Physical and chemical basis of heredity; chromosome structure. DNA replication, transcription and transiation; genetic code; operon concept. Genetic engineering; restriction enzymes; vectors gene cloning; gene transfer. Plant cell and tissue culture; micro-propagation; somaclonal variation. Transformation; recombination: heterosis General application of biotechnology Molecular and immunological techniques. Concept of bioinformatics, genomics and proteomics.
 
Plant Physiology
Seed structures of important crops viz. gram, maize, castor, wheat, soybean etc., Process of seed formation, morphological, physiological and biochemical changes accompanying seed development. Seed viability and vigour, Physiology of seed germination with steps and phases involved. Factors affecting seed germination. Phases of growth. Factors affecting growth. Measurement of growth, growth analysis –definitions and mathematical formulae, application. Properties and physiological functions of water in plants. Water potential and its components. Measurement of water status in plants. Kinds of soil water
Anti transpirants, bleeding and guttation, water use efficiency (WEU) Stomatal structure and function. Raw material, pigment system, structure of chloroplast, photophosphorylation, light and dark reactions, C3, C4 and CAM pathway, photorespiration, Phloem loading, translocation of assimilates, Source and sink relationship. Glycolysis, kerb’s cycle, electron transport system. Pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate cycle and fermentation. Factors affecting respiration. Measurement of respiration. Mengel’s classification of nutrients, criteria of essentiality, physiological role, metabolic functions and deficiency symptoms of elements, foliar application, hydroponics. Mechanism of mineral salt absorption and translocation. Classification of plants, thermoperiodism, phytochromes. Definition, nature of process and application, devernalization, mechanism and application. Occurrence, biosynthesis, physiological role and mode of action of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid, growth retardants; crop- water relationship. Plant nutrients and their functions. Phytohormones and their physiological role. Photo-periodism, vernalisation; pollination / fertilization in flowing plants. Post- harvest physiology and its significance.
Seed dormancy, Storage physiology, Fruit ripening –Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Hormonal regulation of fruit ripening with ethral, CCC, paleobuterozole and Polaris. Scope and importance of environmental studies. Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies and need for public awareness. Natural resources and associated problems Forest resources, Concept Structure and function of an ecosystem Producers, consumers and decomposers. Energy flow, Ecological succession. Food chain, food webs and ecological pyramids. Structure and function of the various ecosystem: Cropland ecosystem, Forest ecosystem, Grassland ecosystem, Desert ecosystem, Aquatic ecosystem

Dairy Technology
Milch and non-milch animals, breeds of various dairy animals, dairy products, meat and meat products, introduction to fish production.

Components of diet: Carbohydrate and types, Glucose, Osazones, Oxidation, The pentose phosphate pathway

Amino acid: Introduction, Amino Acid classification

Protein: Various levels of protein structure

Enzymes and Coenzymes: Introduction and types

Fatty acids and vitamins: Types, functions and food requirements

Hormones: Types, Secretion sources, Functions, Effects

Nucleic acids: Introduction, sources and types

Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis The Citric Acid Cycle: Catalytic reactions, oxidative decarboxylation, intermediate of the citric acid cycle; The glyoxylate cycle: Functions of the glyoxylate cycle.

Water: Ions, molecules, Water and Electrolyte balance; Acid base: Strong and weak acid, pH, buffer and effectiveness of a buffer;

Morphology of root, stem and leaf and their modifications.
Flower, inflorescence, seed and fruits.
Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization and development of embryo.
Seed Germination, growth and development.
Cell and cellular functions, tissues, anatomy of root, stem and leaf of both monocot and dicots, secondary growth.
Elementary study of Plant Physiology.
(a) Structure of root hair, uptake of water and minerals root pressure and transpiration.
(b) Structure of stomata, function, factors, and carbon assimilation.
(c) Translocation and storage of food materials.
(d) Respiration
(e) Mineral nutrition and metabolism
(f) Plant hormones and vitamins.

Plant taxonomy and elementary study of the following families:
(a) Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
(b) Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
(c) Malvaceae
(d) Solanaceae
(e) Cucurbitaceae
(f) Asteraceae (compositae)
(g) Poaceae (Gramineae)

Classification of plant kingdom. A brief study of the following groups/plants:
(a) Viruses
(b) Bacteria
(c) Spirogyra
(d) Mucor/Rhizopus
(e) Moss
(f) Fern
(g) Cycas

General characters of Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Heteromorphic alternation of generation.
Natural resources and their conservation; environment and pollution-air, water and soil community, ecosystem, pyramids, energy flow, mineral cycles, and succession.
Plant tissue culture, biotechnology and its applications.
Molecular Biology- DNA, RNA, Replication, Transcription, DNA damage and repair.
Biochemistry with special reference to carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, enzymes and metabolism.
Genetics- Mendel’s laws of inheritance, Linkage, Sex-linked inheritance, Cytoplasmic inheritance, Morgan’s work with Drosophila, Pedigree analysis, Hardy-Weinberg law, Chromosomal theory of inheritance.
Plant Pathology- general features of plant diseases, general symptoms shown by pathogen infected plants, special emphasis on diseases caused by fungi and bacteria in rice, wheat, potato, fruits and vegetables.

Recombinant DNA Technology
Introduction, Tool of rDNA Technology,  Introduction of Recombinant DNA into Host Cells, Identification of Recombinants, DNA Library, DNA Probes, Hybridization Techniques, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), DNA Sequencing, Site-directed Mutagenesis.
Protein Structure and Engineering
Introduction to the World of Proteins, 3-D Shape of Proteins, Structure-Function Relationship in Proteins Purification of Proteins, Characterization of Proteins, Protein based Products, Designing Proteins (protein engineering).
Genomics and Bioinformatics
Introduction, Genome Sequencing Projects, Gene Prediction and Counting, Genome Similarity, SNPs and Comparative Genomics, Functional Genomics, Proteomics.
Microbial Culture and Applications
Introduction, Microbial culture techniques, Measurement and kinetics of microbial growth, Scale up of microbial process, Isolation of microbial products, Strain isolation and improvement, Biosafety issues in microbial technology.
Plant Cell Culture and Applications
Introduction, Cell and Tissue Culture Techniques, Applications of Cell and Tissue Culture, Gene Transfer Methods in Plants, Transgenic Plants with Beneficial Traits, Biosafety in Plant Genetic Engineering.
Animal Cell Culture and Applications
Introduction, Animal cell culture techniques, Characterisation of cell lines, Methods of gene delivery into cells, Scale-up of animal culture process, Applications of animal cell culture, Stem cell technology, Tissue engineering.

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

Atomic and Molecular Structure: Fundamental particles; Bohr’s theory of hydrogen-like atom; wave-particle duality; uncertainty principle; Schrödinger’s wave equation; quantum numbers; shapes of orbitals; Hund’s rule and Pauli’s exclusion principle; electronic configuration of simple homonuclear diatomic molecules.

Theory of Gases: Equation of state for ideal and non-ideal (van der Waals) gases; Kinetic theory of gases; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law; equipartition of energy.

Solid state: Crystals and crystal systems; X-rays; NaCl and KCl structures; close packing; atomic and ionic radii; radius ratio rules; lattice energy; Born-Haber cycle; isomorphism; heat capacity of solids.

Chemical Thermodynamics-I: Reversible and irreversible processes; first law and its application to ideal and nonideal gases.

Chemical Thermodynamics-II: Thermochemistry; second law; entropy and free energy; criteria for spontaneity.

Chemical Equilibria-I: Law of mass action; Kp, Kc, Kx and Kn; effect of temperature on K.

Chemical Equilibria-II: Ionic equilibria in solutions; pH and buffer solutions; hydrolysis; solubility product.

Phase Equilibria: Phase equilibria–phase rule and its application to one-component and two-component systems; colligative properties.

Electrochemistry-I: Conductance and its applications; transport number; galvanic cells; EMF and free energy.

Electrochemistry-II: concentration cells with and without transport; polarography; Debey-Huckel-Onsagar theory of strong electrolytes.

Chemical Kinetics-I: Reactions of various order; Arrhenius equation; collision theory; transition state theory; chain reactions – normal and branched.

Chemical Kinetics-II: Enzyme kinetics; photochemical processes; catalysis.

Adsorption: Gibbs adsorption equation; adsorption isotherm; types of adsorption; surface area of adsorbents; surface films on liquids.

Spectroscopy: Beer-Lambert law; fundamental concepts of rotational, vibrational, electronic and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry: Electronic effects (resonance, inductive, hyper conjugation) and steric effects and its applications (acid/base property).

Stereochemistry-I: Optical isomerism in compounds with and without any stereocenters (allenes, biphenyls).

Stereochemistry-II: Conformation of acyclic systems (substituted ethane/n-propane/n-butane) and cyclic systems (mono- and di-substituted cyclohexanes).

Reaction Intermediates: Chemistry of reactive intermediates (carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, nitrenes, benzynes etc…).

Organic Reaction Mechanism and Synthetic Applications-I: Simmons-Smith reaction, Reimer-Tiemann reaction, Michael reaction, Darzens reaction, Wittig reaction and McMurry reaction; Baeyer-Villeger reaction; oxidation and reduction reactions in organic chemistry; Diels-Alder, electrocyclic and sigmatropic reactions; functional group inter-conversions and structural problems using chemical reactions.

Organic Reaction Mechanism and Synthetic Applications-II: Hofmann-Curtius-Lossen rearrangement, Wolff rearrangement, Pinacol-pinacolone, Favorskii, benzilic acid rearrangement, dienone-phenol rearrangement.

Reagents in Organic Synthesis: Organometallic reagents in organic synthesis (Grignard, organolithium and organocopper);

Qualitative Organic Analysis: Identification of functional groups by chemical tests; elementary UV, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques as tools for structural elucidation.

Natural Products Chemistry: Chemistry of alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides and nucleic acids.

Aromatic Chemistry: Monocyclic, bicyclic and tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: synthesis, reactivity and properties.

Heterocyclic Chemistry: Monocyclic compounds with one hetero atom: synthesis, reactivity and properties.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Periodic Table: Periodic classification of elements and periodicity in properties; general methods of isolation and purification of elements.

Chemical Bonding: Types of bonding; VSEPR theory and shapes of molecules; hybridization; dipole moment.

Ionic Solids: Ionic solids; structure of NaCl, CsCl, diamond and graphite; lattice energy.

Main Group Elements (s and p blocks): General concepts on group relationships and gradation in properties; structure of electron deficient compounds involving main group elements.

Transition Metals (d block): Characteristics of 3d elements; oxide, hydroxide and salts of first row metals; coordination complexes: structure, isomerism, reaction mechanism and electronic spectra.

Bonding theories of Coordination complexes: VBT, MOT and Crystal Field theoretical approaches for structure, color and magnetic properties of metal complexes.

Organometallic chemistry: Organometallic compounds having ligands with back bonding capabilities such as metal carbonyls, carbenes, nitrosyls and metallocenes; homogenous catalysis.

Bioinorganic Chemistry-I: Essentials and trace elements of life; basic reactions in the biological systems and the role of metal ions, especially Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+.

Bioinorganic Chemistry-II: Structure and function of hemoglobin and myoglobin and carbonic anhydrase.

Instrumental Methods of Analysis-I: Basic principles; instrumentations and simple applications of conductometry, potentiometry and UV-vis spectrophotometry.

Instrumental Methods of Analysis-II: Analysis of water, air and soil samples.

Analytical Chemistry-I: Principles of qualitative and quantitative analysis; acid-base, oxidation-reduction and complexometric titrations using EDTA.

Analytical Chemistry-II: Precipitation reactions; use of indicators; use of organic reagents in inorganic analysis.

General microbiology: History of Development of Microbiology, Equipment’s to measure, microorganism, smear, Autoclave, Pasteurization, culture, prokaryotic cell, biosynthesis, enzymes, growth, Microbial genetics, Industrial microbiology: Fermentation. By-products, Thermo-resistant bacteria, Transgenic animals, Antibiotic producing organisms, cloning vector; Food microbiology: aflatoxins, health benefits and microorganisms, foodborne pathogens, Germ Theory, epidemiology, infectious cycle, zoonotic, control measures to break infection; Immunology: phagocytosis, immunogenicity, Antibody ,Advanced Microbiology: Agriculture Microbiology, Environment Microbiology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology.

Sequences and Series of Real Numbers

Sequence of real numbers, Convergence of sequences, Bounded and monotone sequences, Convergence criteria for sequences of real numbers, Cauchy sequences, Subsequences, Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem. Series of real numbers, Absolute convergence, Tests of convergence for series of positive terms – comparison test, ratio test, root test, Leibniz test for convergence of alternating series.

Functions of One Real Variable

Limit, Continuity, Intermediate value property, Differentiation, Rolle’s Theorem, Mean value theorem, L'Hospital rule, Taylor ' s theorem, Maxima and minima.

Functions of Two or Three Real Variables

Limit, Continuity, Partial derivatives, Differentiability, Maxima and minima.

Integral Calculus

Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, Definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental theorem of calculus. Double and triple integrals, Change of order of integration, Calculating surface areas and volumes using double integrals, Calculating volumes using triple integrals.

Differential Equations

Ordinary differential equations of the first order of the form y ' =f(x,y), Bernoulli 's equation, Exact differential equations, Integrating factor, Orthogonal trajectories, Homogeneous differential equations, Variable separable equations, Linear Differential equations of second order with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy-Euler equation.

Vector Calculus

Scalar and vector fields, Gradient, Divergence, Curl, Line integrals, Surface integrals, Green, Stokes and Gauss theorems.

Group Theory

Groups, Subgroups, Abelian groups, Non-Abelian groups, Cyclic groups, Permutation groups, Normal subgroups, Lagrange 's Theorem for finite groups, Group homomorphisms and basic concepts of quotient groups.

Linear Algebra

Finite dimensional vector spaces, Linear independence of vectors, Basis, dimension, Linear transformations, Matrix representation, Range space, Null space, Rank-nullity theorem. Rank and inverse of a matrix, Determinant, Solutions of systems of linear equations, Consistency conditions, Eigen values and Eigen vectors for matrices, Cayley-Hamilton theorem.

Real Analysis

Interior points, Limit points, Open sets, Closed sets, Bounded sets, Connected sets, Compact sets, Completeness of R. Power series (of real variable), Taylor’s series, Radius and interval of convergence, Term-wise differentiation and integration of power series.

Pharmaceutics
Composition & physical states of matter, Colligative Properties, Thermodynamics, Chemical Equillibria, Phase rule, Refractive index, Solutions, Electrochemistry, Kinetics, Matter, properties of matter, Micrometrics and powder rheology, Surface and interfacial phenomenon, Viscosity and rheology, Dispersion systems, Complexation, Buffer, Solubility, Introduction to Pharmaceuticals, dosage form, route of administration, Sources of drug information, Allopathic dosage form, Crude extract, Allergenic extract, Ayurvedic system and Homeopathic system of medicine, Biological products, GMP and validation, Pharmaceutical Plant, location, layout, Dosage Form Necessities and Additives, Powders, Capsules, Tablets, .Parenteral-product requiring sterile packaging, aerosol ,emulsion, suspension, percolation, Suppositories, Semisolids, Liquids (solutions, syrups, elixirs, spirits, aromatic water, liquid for external uses), Ophthalmic preparations, Preformulations, Radio Pharmaceuticals, Stability of formulated products, Kinetic Principles and Stability Testing, Novel and Controlled Drug delivery system, Cosmetics, Packaging Materials, Pilot plant scale up techniques, Plant Cell and Tissue Culture, Animal Cell Culture, Recombinant DNA Technology, Process and Applications, Biotechnology Derived Products, Proteomics, Formulation of Proteins and Peptides, Fluid flow, Heat transfer, Evaporation, Distillation, Drying, Size reduction and size separation, Extraction, Mixing, Crystallization, Filtration and Centrifugation, Refrigeration and air conditioning, Material of constructions, Automated process control systems, Industrial hazards & safety precautions, Planning and Forecasting, Research Management, Marketing Research, Human resource and development (HRD), GATT, TRIPS, Standard institutions and regulatory authorities, The Pharmacy Act 1948 (inclusive of recent amendments), Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940, Rules 1945, including New Drug applications, Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954, Medicinal and Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955, Rules 1976, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 and Rules 1975, Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960, Drug (Price Control) Order, Shops and Establishment Act, Factory Act, Consumer Protection Act, Indian Pharmaceutical Industry- An Overview, Minimum Wages Act 1948, maceration process, Study of current patent and proprietary products, generic products and selected brand products, indications, contra indications, adverse drug reactions, available dosage forms and packing, Compounding and dispensing of different formulation prescriptions, Reading and counselling of prescriptions from the clinical practice, Bio-pharmaceutics, Bio-availability & Bio-equivalence, Bio- pharmaceutical statistics. Pharmacovigilance, Pharmacoeconomics, Drug distribution systems in hospitals, Entrepreneurship opportunity for pharmacy graduates.

Pharmaceutical Analysis
Importance of quality control in pharmacy, Acid-base titrations, Non-aqueous titrations, Oxidation- reduction titrations, Redox titrations, Precipitation titrations, Complexometric titrations, Gravimetry, Extraction techniques, Electrochemical methods of analysis (Potentiometry, Conductometry, polarography, amperometric titrations), Miscellaneous methods of analysis (Kjeldahl method, oxygen flask combustion method, diazotization titrations, Karl Fischer titrations), Calibration of instruments, General principles of spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible Spectrometry, Spectrofluorimetry, Flame photometry & Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Infrared spectrometry, Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, Mass spectrometry, Nephelometry & Turbidimetry, Chromatography, Miscellaneous, Analytical instrumentation used in Pharmaceutical.

Pharmacology
General Pharmacology, Cell physiology, Anatomy and Physiology of different organ, Gastrointestinal tract, Respiratory System, Autonomic nervous system, Sense organs, Skeletal System, Central Nervous system, Urinary System, Reproductive System, Endocrine Glands, Cardio vascular system, Lymphatic system. Anatomy and Physiology of different organ, Pharmacology of drug acting on Peripheral Nervous System, Central Nervous System, Cardiovascular system, Urinary system, Respiratory system, Gastrointestinal tract, Endocrine system, Chemotherapy, Autacoids and their Antagonists Drugs acting on blood and blood formation, urinary system, narcotic analgesics, NSAIDs, Vitamins & Minerals, Neoplastic diseases, Immnopharmacology, chronopharmacology, toxicology, Chemotherapy of malignant diseases, Peptides and proteins as mediators, Clinical research and Pharmacovigilance, concepts of pharmacotherapy, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Adverse drug reaction, Biochemistry of cell, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Biological oxidations & reductions, Enzymes, Nucleic acids, Hereditary diseases, Microscopy and staining technique, Biology of Microorganisms, Fungi and Viruses, Aseptic Technique, Sterilization & Disinfection, Microbial spoilage, .Immunology and health, Vaccines & Sera, Microbial Assay, Pathophysiology of different diseases, Basic principles of cell injury and adaptation, mechanisms of inflammation and repair, Hypersensitivity, Auto-immunity & diseases of immunity, Neoplastic diseases, Shock, Biological effects of radiation, Protein calorie malnutrition, vitamins, obesity, Starvation, Infectious diseases, General Principles, preparation, maintenance, analysis of observational records in clinical Pharmacy, Therapeutic drug monitoring, adverse drug reaction (ADR), Clinical trials, Drug information services, Drug interactions, Age related drug therapy, Pharmacovigilance, Drug therapy in gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular and respiratory Disorders, neurological and psychological disorders, urinary system, infective meningitis, TB, HIV, malaria and filarial, parathyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, menstrual cycle disorders, menopause and male sexual dysfunction, leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumors, rheumatic, eye and skin disorders.

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry
General principles in organic chemistry, Different classes of compounds, protection & deprotection of functional groups. Aromaticity and different aromatic classes of compounds, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Carbonyl Chemistry, Heterocyclic Chemistry, Bridged rings, Kinetic & thermodynamic control, Stereochemistry, Carbohydrates, Amino acids & proteins, Organometalic chemistry, Pericyclic reactions, Pharmaceutical Impurities, Monographs, Isotopes, Therapeutic classes of different drugs, Drug metabolism, Drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure activity relationships [SAR] of therapeutic agents, Combinatorial chemistry. Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides, Amino acids, Peptides, Proteins, Nucleic acid, fats. Structure, nomenclature and properties and reaction mechanism of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes. Structure, nomenclature and properties and reaction mechanism of organic compounds: benzene, phenol, arene, Structure, nomenclature and properties and reaction mechanism of organic compounds: alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, epoxides, amines, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, functional derivatives of carboxylic acids, Stereochemistry, relative and absolute configuration of organic molecules.

Medicinal Chemistry and Phytochemistry
Classification, structure, SAR, synthesis and medicinal uses of following class of drugs: Non Opioid Analgesics and NSAIDS, Opioid analgesics & Anti-tussives, Anti-histamines, Classification, structure, SAR, synthesis and medicinal uses of following class of drugs: Chemotherapeutic agents used in Protozoal, Parasitic and other infections, Anti-viral including anti-HIV, Antineoplastics agents, Drug Metabolism, Diagnostic agents, Pharmaceutical Aids, Classification, structure, SAR, synthesis and medicinal uses of following class of drugs: Steroids and related drugs, Diuretics, Drugs acting on cardio-vascular system, General anaesthetics & Local anaesthetics. Adrenergic and Cholinergic Drugs, Cardiovascular Drugs, Central Nervous System Drugs, Antiasthmatic Drugs, Anti-microbial Agents, Antidiabetic Drugs, Antiulcer Drugs, NSAIDS. Classification, structure, SAR, synthesis and medicinal uses of following class of drugs: Cholinergics and Anti-cholinesterases, Adrenergic drugs, Drugs affecting central nervous. Classification of crude drugs, Factors influencing quality of crude drugs, Techniques in microscopy, Introduction to phytoconstituents, Principles of plant classification, Pharmaceutical aids related pharmacognosy, Animal products, Plant products, Study of allergens, hallucinogens, narcotics, toxic mushrooms, Natural pesticides and insecticides, Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs, Quantitative microscopy, .Biogenetic pathways, Biological sources, salient morphological features, chemical constituents, and uses of Carbohydrates & lipids, Tannins, Volatile oils, Resinous drugs, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Herbarium, Extraction and Isolation Techniques, Phytopharmaceuticals, Quality control and Standardization of herbal drugs, Herbal formulations, Worldwide trade of crude drugs and volatile oils, Herbal cosmetics, Plant Biotechnology, Traditional herbal drugs, Plants based industries and research institutes in India, Patents.

Anatomy: Upper limb –muscles ,bones and joints ,Lower limb –muscles ,bones and joints, Head and Neck, Central nervous system, Thorax –Lungs and Heart, Abdomen

Physiology: Functions of endocrine glands, Cardiovascular system, Respiratory system, Nervous system, Blood and its functions, Musculoskeletal system, Immunity

Exercise Therapy: Active exercises, Passive exercises, Resisted exercises, Starting positions and derived positions, Suspension therapy

Electrotherapy: Hydrotherapy, Short wave diathermy, Ultrasound therapy, Transcutaneous electric stimulation, Electric muscular stimulation, Microwave diatherapy, LASER, Ultraviolet rays, Compression therapy.

Biomechanics: Stucture of shoulder,elbow and wrist joint,Structure of Hip joint, Structure and function of Tibiofemoral joint, Structure and function of Patellofemoral joint, Joints of Ankle and foot complex, Plantar arches and muscles of ankle and foot, Kinetics and Kinematics of Posture, Analysis of Postures, Abnormal Gaits

Clinical Neurology: Structure and Function of Brain  and Spinal Cord ,Blood Supply of Brain and Spinal Cord , Disorders of CNS , Disorders of PNS, Tumors of Brain and spinal cord, Head Injury, Stroke, Parkinsonism, Multiple Sclerosis, MND,Poliomyelitis, Cervical and Lumbar Disc Lesions, Myopathies , Infections of Brain and Spinal Cord

Clinical Orthopedics:Classification of fractures, Fracture healing, Treatment of fractures, Splints & tractions, Treatment and complications of fracture, Dislocations and subluxation, Tennis elbow, Golfer’s elbow, Ganglion, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Trigger finger, Torticollis, cervical rib , Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout and pseudogout ,Osteoarthritis, Cervical spondylosis, Classification of amputation, Levels of amputation, complications of amputations, Rickets, Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis, Dupuytren’s contracture, Frozen shoulder, De quervains disease, Meralgia paraesthetica, Injuries around shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, pelvis, hip, knee, ankle, foot, Spine, Congenital abnormalities

Clinical Cardio respiratory:Basic anatomy of heart and blood vessels, Basic physiology of cardiovascular system, Investigations in cardiology, Cardiac Medications, Ischemic Heart Diseases, Cardiomyopathies , Dilated Cardiomyopathies Conduction abnormalities of heart , Congenital Heart Diseases ,Cardiac Surgeries , Peripheral Arterial Diseases , Lymphatic Diseases ,Venous Diseases ,Intensive Cardiac Care

Community Based Rehabilitation:Introduction to rehabilitation medicine : Conceptual framework of rehabilitation, Roles of rehabilitation team members, Definitions and various models of rehabilitation, Community based rehabilitation, Preventive rehabilitation, Activities of daily living : Definition of ADL, Scope & importance of ADLs, Wheel chair activities, Teaching training of bed activities, Training of locomotor activites, Teaching training of self care activities Sociolegal aspects of rehabilitation : Statutory provisions, Schemes of assistance to persons with disability Vocational Rehabilitation : Prehension, Disabled hand, Vocational rehabilitation team, Principles in the management of vocational problems, Principles of U.L. Prosthetics and Orthotics, Principles of L.L. Prosthetics and Orthotics, Spinal orthosis.

Pediatrics and Geriatrics: Normal Developmental milestones of infant, Primitive reflexes, Congenital Disorders of infants, Orthopeadic, Neurological , Cardio pulmonary , Psychiatric and behavioural disorders of paediatrics, Normal response to ageing, Degenerative disorders of Geriatric Population, Cardiological, pulmonary, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders of geriatric population, Falls and Falls prevention.

Obstetrics And Gynaecology: Physiology of pregnancy, The breast, Urinary tract and anorectal region, Complications of pregnancy, The antenatal period Post natal problems, Common gynecological conditions: Salpingitis, Uterine fibroids, Amenorrhea, Dysmennorhea, Premenstrual syndrome, Menorrhagia, Endometriosis, Incontinence of urine, Lower urinary tract dysfunction, Urinary dysfunction : Incontinence of urine.

Research Methodology and Biostatistics:
Foundations of Research: Meaning, Objectives, Motivation, Utility, deductive and inductive theory.

Problem Identification & Formulation – Hypothesis – Qualities of a good Hypothesis –Null Hypothesis & Alternative Hypothesis. Hypothesis Testing – Logic & Importance.

Research Design: Concept and Importance in Research – Features of a good research design – Exploratory Research Design – concept, types and uses, Descriptive Research Designs – concept, types and uses. Experimental Design: Concept of Independent & Dependent variables.

Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Qualitative research – Quantitative research – Concept of measurement, causality, generalization, replication.

Measurement: Concept of measurement– Validity and Reliability, Levels of measurement – Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio.

Sampling: Concepts of Statistical Population, Sample, Sampling Frame, Sampling Error, Sample Size, Non Response, Characteristics of a good sample, Probability Sample – Simple Random Sample, Systematic Sample, Stratified Random Sample & Multi-stage sampling, Determining size of the sample.



Physiotherapy  in orthopaedic Conditions:Assistive devices , Approach to patient with trauma,orthopaedic injury, Complications of fractures , Assessment and management of orthopaedic disorders of upper limb,lower limb , Assessment and management of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, Assessment and management of amputation, ,Assessment and management of osteomylitis, Assessment and management of tuberculosis of bones, Assessment and management of Caries spine , Assessment and management of benign tumour and malignant tumours ,Assessment and Management of poliomyelitis, peripheral nerve injuries of upper limb, peripheral nerve injuries of lower limb.

Physiotherapy  in Neurologic  Conditions:Assessment and Management of Stoke, MS, Parkinson’s, MND,Tumors of Brain and Spinal Cord, Traumatic Head and spine injury, Demyleinating diseases of brain and spinal cord ,Degenerative diseases of brain and spinal cord, Peripheral Nerve injuries and disorders, Infectious disorders of brain and spinal cord, cerebellar disorders, ANS dysfunctions, Radiculopathies
Physiotherapy  in Cardiopulmonary Conditions:Objective and subjective assessment of cardiopulmonary patient, Breathing techniques  and airway clearance techniques used in cardiopulmonary patient, Rehabilitation of cardiac and pulmonary patient, Cardiopulmonary physiotherapy for musculoskeletal ,neurological disorders, Physiotherapy techniques in intensive care unit, Cardiopulmonary physiotherapy for neonates and pediatric patients, Cardiopulmonary physiotherapy for geriatrics and transplant patients

Physiotherapy in Sports Medicine:Multidisciplinary approach, Principles of athletic training, Classification of sports injuries, Overuse injuries, Principles of injury prevention, Response of body to exercises, Types of training : Aerobic training, Anaerobic training.
Paediatrics And Geriatrics Physiotherapy: Genetic Disorders, Positioning and handling to enhance the motor function, Neural tube defects, Muscle disorders in paediatrics, Vitamin Deficiency in Paediatrics, Cardiorespiratory in paediatrics, Impaired motor control, Impaired posture and mobility, Evaluation of seriously ill geriatrics, Exercise and physical activity for older adults, Balance and falls, Environmental design for geriatrics, Home health Physical therapy

Mathematical Methods: Calculus of single and multiple variables, partial derivatives, Jacobian, imperfect and perfect differentials, Taylor expansion, Fourier series. Vector algebra, Vector Calculus, Multiple integrals, Divergence theorem, Green’s theorem, Stokes’ theorem. First order equations and linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Matrices and determinants, Algebra of complex numbers.

Mechanics and General Properties of Matter
: Newton’s laws of motion and applications, Velocity and acceleration in Cartesian, polar and cylindrical coordinate systems, uniformly rotating frame, centrifugal and Coriolis forces, Motion under a central force, Kepler’s laws, Gravitational Law and field, Conservative and non-conservative forces. System of particles, Center of mass, equation of motion of the CM, conservation of linear and angular momentum, conservation of energy, variable mass systems. Elastic and inelastic collisions. Rigid body motion, fixed axis rotations, rotation and translation, moments of Inertia and products of Inertia, parallel and perpendicular axes theorem. Principal moments and axes. Kinematics of moving fluids, equation of continuity, Euler’s equation, Bernoulli’s theorem.

Oscillations, Waves and Optics
: Differential equation for simple harmonic oscillator and its general solution. Super position of two or more simple harmonic oscillators. Lissajous figures. Damped and forced oscillators, resonance. Wave equation, travelling and standing waves in one-dimension. Energy density and energy transmission in waves. Group velocity and phase velocity. Sound waves in media. Doppler Effect. Fermat’s Principle. General theory of image formation. Thick lens, thin lens and lens combinations. Interference of light, optical path retardation. Fraunhofer diffraction. Rayleigh criterion and resolving power. Diffraction gratings. Polarization: linear, circular and elliptic polarization. Double refraction and optical rotation.

Electricity and Magnetism
: Coulomb’s law, Gauss’s law. Electric field and potential. Electrostatic boundary conditions, Solution of Laplace’s equation for simple cases. Conductors, capacitors, dielectrics, dielectric polarization, volume and surface charges, electrostatic energy. Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents. Simple DC and AC circuits with R, L and C components. Displacement current, Maxwell’s equations and plane electromagnetic waves, Poynting’s theorem, reflection and refraction at a dielectric interface, transmission and reflection coefficients (normal incidence only). Lorentz Force and motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields.

Kinetic theory, Thermodynamics
: Elements of Kinetic theory of gases. Velocity distribution and Equipartition of energy. Specific heat of Mono-, di- and tri-atomic gases. Ideal gas, van-der-Waals gas and equation of state. Mean free path. Laws of thermodynamics. Zeroth law and concept of thermal equilibrium. First law and its consequences. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Reversible, irreversible and quasi-static processes. Second law and entropy. Carnot cycle. Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations and simple applications. Thermodynamic potentials and their applications. Phase transitions and Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Ideas of ensembles, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions.

Modern Physics: Inertial frames and Galilean invariance. Postulates of special relativity. Lorentz transformations. Length contraction, time dilation. Relativistic velocity addition theorem, mass energy equivalence. Blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, Bohr’s atomic model, X-rays. Wave-particle duality, Uncertainty principle, the superposition principle, calculation of expectation values, Schrödinger equation and its solution for one, two and three dimensional boxes. Solution of Schrödinger equation for the one dimensional harmonic oscillator. Reflection and transmission at a step potential, Pauli exclusion principle. Structure of atomic nucleus, mass and binding energy. Radioactivity and its applications. Laws of radioactive decay.

Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics: Crystal structure, Bravais lattices and basis. Miller indices. X-ray diffraction and Bragg’s law; Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, variation of resistivity with temperature. Fermi level. p-n junction diode, I-V characteristics, Zener diode and its applications, BJT: characteristics in CB, CE, CC modes. Single stage amplifier, two stage R-C coupled amplifiers. Simple Oscillators: Barkhausen condition, sinusoidal oscillators. OPAMP and applications: Inverting and non-inverting amplifier. Boolean algebra: Binary number systems; conversion from one system to another system; binary addition and subtraction. Logic Gates AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR exclusive OR; Truth tables; combination of gates; de Morgan’s theorem.

Ecology: Greenhouse effect, Occurrences of Tropical rain forest, biotype, Ecological pyramid, BOD value in aquatic environment;

Mendelian Genetics: Pair of alleles, Determination of characteristics of pea plants, Non-Mendelian;

Digestive system: salivary secretion and swallowing, control of gastric secretion, gastric motility, pancreatic secretion, the bile;

Respiratory system: airways and alveoli, mechanics of ventilation, ventilation and gas exchange, pulmonary circulation;

Reproductive system: sexual reproduction in man, ovarian cycle, menstrual cycle, hormone;

Cardiac system: conduction system of the heart, ECG, cardiac cycle, arterial blood pressure;

Properties of blood: plasma, properties of red cells, gas carriage by the blood, platelets, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), transport of glucose, excretion of acid by the kidneys, control of water balance by the kidneys;

Central nervous system (CNS): nerve cell, synaptic excitation;

Muscular system: structure of muscle tissue, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle;

Endocrine system: hypothalamic control of pituitary function, functions of the posterior pituitary gland.

Sensory system: sensory receptor properties, receptors in the skin, focusing of the eye, physiology of the eye, vision;

Body physiology: glucose metabolism, absorptive and post-absorptive states of the body, diabetes mellitus, water content;

Developmental biology: fertilized egg , Weismann’s model of development, experiments of Spemann and Mangold , Genes control , development;

Vertebrate development: frog’s life-cycle , notochord, gastrulation in Xenopus, the invertebrates, Aquatic animals , blastula;

Other aspects: sponges , cnidarians-helminthes, annelid, mollusca, Arthropoda, chinodermata, the vertebrates, Animal Diversity, Origin of Life, Vitamins, Proteins, Cell Biology, Enzymes, DNA, Cell Organelles

Grammar: Parts of speech – Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Adverb, Verb, Preposition, Conjunction Interjection; Tenses – Present, Past and Future Tense in Active and Passive Form; Modal Verbs – Can, Could, May, might, Should, Will, would.

Associative Language Skills: Vocabulary – Antonyms, Synonyms, one-word substitution, Word Analogies, Idioms and Phrases

Common Errors: Sentence Correction and Error Finding Exercises

Comprehension Passages: Closed and Open paragraphs, identifying key ideas or theme.

Basic concepts of Chemistry: Strength of solution, molarity and molality, normality, mole fraction and parts per million.

Water, Acids and Bases: Theories of acids and bases, water homeostasis, buffer solutions, choice of indicators for acid-base titration.

Carbohydrates: Introduction and Classification of Carbohydrates, digestion of the Carbohydrates, biological significance, important properties of Carbohydrates.

Lipids: Introduction and Classification, Properties of Fat, lipoproteins, steroids and triglycerides.

Proteins: Introduction to Amino acids, Classification of Proteins, Structure of Proteins, Properties of Proteins.

Enzymes: Introduction and Classification, Factors affecting Enzyme action, Enzyme inhibition, Iso-enzymes.

Nucleic acids: Introduction and Classification, DNA and RNA, Watson and Crick Model, Types of DNA.

Vitamins and Co-enzymes: Introduction and Classification, Water soluble vitamins, Fat soluble vitamins, Coenzymes and Cofactor.

Hormones: Introduction and Classification, Mechanism of action and secondary messenger, Amino acid and peptide hormones, Steroid hormones.

Immunology: Innate and Adaptive Immunity, cellular and humoral immunity, antigen and antibody interaction, antigen processing and presentation.

 Introduction to general microbiology: Introduction, History of Microbiology, Relationship of microbes to human, Normal micro flora of human.

Microscopy: Introduction, Principle and Application of Light microscope, Fluorescent microscope, Phase contrast microscope, Electron microscope.

Sterilization: Introduction and its types, principle, procedure and application of each types of Sterilization, Various Efficiency testing to Sterilizers and Sterilization procedures.

Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Introduction and Classification, Mode of action, Application of various disinfectants and the precautions during disinfectants use.

Classification of Microbes: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, General Characteristics, Classification and Clinical significance of bacteria, fungi, virus and parasite.

Morphological Classification of Bacteria: General features and Classification of bacteria, bacterial cell structures, Gram’s staining and its Applications.

Growth and Nutrition of Microbes: Classification of micro-organisms on the basis of nutrition, general growth requirements of the bacteria, physical conditions required for growth, growth curve of bacteria.

Culture Media: Introduction and Classification of culture media, composition, principle and applications of each type of culture media, aerobic culture methods, anaerobic culture methods.

Antibiotics susceptibility testing : Introduction, principle, modes of action and its applications, MIC, MBC and Strokes methods, Kirby Bauer method, Gradient Susceptibility Testing such as MIC by E-test.

Immunology: Innate and adaptive immunity, cellular and humoral immunity, antigen and antibody interaction, antigen processing and presentation.

Structure and composition of earth: Atmosphere: structure and temperature profile, Hydrosphere: solid liquid and gaseous water, Lithosphere: earth composition and processes.
Earth processes: Structure and composition of earth crusts, physical properties of important minerals and rocks, formation of soil: weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition,   energy balance of the earth.
Atmospheric chemistry: Structure and chemical composition of the atmosphere, atmospheric turbulence, lapse rate and stability, scale height, dispersion of pollutants, greenhouse gases and global warming.
Water chemistry: Properties of water, hydrological cycle, sources of water: groundwater and surface water resources, water balance, water pollution and management.
Geochemistry: Atomic Structure and properties of elements, the Periodic Table; ionic substitution in minerals, redox reactions, thermodynamics, sedimentary environments.
Cell Structure and Functions: Cell biology and cell totipotency.
Bio-geochemical Cycles: Carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle and hydrological cycle.
Theories of Evolution: Evolution of lithosphere, genetic drift, homologous and analogous organs, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere, life in Precambrian era.
Genetics: Structure of DNA, principles of inheritance, epistasis, genetic drift, speciation, mutation and gene repair mechanism.
Plant Systematics: Modern system of plant classification, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms, photosynthesis and plant physiology.
Animal Systematics: Taxonomy and phylogenetic relationship and representation, classification of animals.
Anatomy and Physiology of Human: Gross and microscopic anatomy, respiration, circulation, digestion and excretion process, biochemical cascades and cycles, ATP generation.
Biosphere and its Organizational Levels: Biomes, types of biome, Ecosystem characteristics, communities of species, population count.
Structure and types of Ecosystem: Basic structure and function of ecosystem, types of ecosystems: aquatic and terrestrial, characteristic features of an ecosystem.
Food Chain and Energy Flow: Types of food chains, importance, food webs, energy transfer through trophic levels, energy balance and energy loss, energy law.
Population and Community Ecosystem: Population structure, growth and death rates, alpha, beta and gamma diversity, reproduction and method to control population, carrying capacity.
Biodiversity: Importance, levels of Biodiversity, Concept of Endangered, threaten vulnerable, rare and endemic species, trade and threat to biodiversity and protection.
Conservation: Environmental conservation, in-situ: protected areas, biosphere reserves, ex-situ: botanical garden, zoological parks, seed and gene bank.
Principles of Microbiology: Microbes, micro-organisms in air, water, soil: importance and threat, microbes in sewage treatment, applications in industry and environment.
Protein Structure: Primary, secondary, tertiary and quarterly structure of proteins, roles in metabolism and growth.
Pathogenic Organisms: Major classes of bacterial and viral pathogens and diseases caused by them.
Structure of DNA and Chromosome: DNA, double helix structure, orientation and sites for Nucleotides.
DNA Replication: Transcription, translation: Steps of DNA replication, editing and proof reading, Synthesis of proteins.
Mutation: Levels of mutation: genetic and chemical mutation, types: deletion, insertion, multiplication, base pair substitution and frame shift mutation.
Recombinant DNA Technology: Genetic recombination, recombinant DNA organism, role of recombinant DNA technology in pharmacology, agriculture and environment protection.
Application of Biotechnology: In medicine, industry, agriculture and environment.
Natural Resources: Classification on basis of origin, exhaustibility, benefits to mankind, conservation and sustainable use.
Energy Recovery: Identification, segregation of energy giving materials, extraction of energy from waste.
Air Pollution: Sources of pollution, gaseous pollution, particulate matter, micro-organisms, and pollution control devices, standards for gaseous and particulate matter in air, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
Water Pollution: Sources of pollution: point and non-point, eutrophication, bio-chemical oxygen demand, effect of pollution on water parameters, monitoring, prevention and control of water pollution, Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
Soil Pollution: Sources, loading of industrial waste, effect on soil fertility and properties, prevention of soil pollution.
Noise pollution: Sources, noise levels, effect on physiology and behaviour of organisms, monitoring, Standards for commercial, residential and industrial areas, regulations.
Solid Waste Management: Sources, collection, segregation, transportation and conversion process, landfill sites and maintenance.
Ozone Layer Depletion: Ozone concentration in atmosphere, formation and breakdown, effect of chlorine and fluorine on ozone molecule, significance of ozone and effects of depletion.
Global Warming and Climate Change: Concentration of greenhouse gases, increase in earth temperature, effects on seasons and weather pattern.
Acid Rain and Smog:  pH, acidity and dissolved matter in rain water, primary and secondary pollutants, smog formation: sources and chemical reactions, effect on human structure and agriculture.
Sustainable Development: Concept of Sustainability, need, Sustainable Development: savage to environment deterioration.
Environmental Acts: Environment Protection Act, 1986, importance and role in environmental protection.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Concept of EIA, formulation and need, Role of EIA in assessing environmental effects of development, mitigation and regulation via EIA.
Society and Environment: Interaction between components of environment, role and responsibilities of individual in conservation of environment, environmental balance.

Forensic Science: Definition, History & Development, Scope, Ethics in Forensic Science.
Physical Evidence: Nature, Types, Search methods, Chain of Custody.
Crime Scene: Nature, Types.
Criminal Investigations: Unnatural deaths, Criminal assaults, Sexual offences, Poisoning, Vehicular accidents.
Courts: Types, Powers and Jurisdiction, Provisions in Cr.P.C. 1973 & Indian Evidence Act relating to experts & their reports; Court Procedures pertaining to Expert Testimony & Witness.
 Fundamental Rights: Right of Equality (Articles 14 to 18) and Right of Freedom (Articles 19 to 22) as per Constitution of India.
Instrumental Techniques: Basics, Principles, Instrumentation and Applications of Microscopy, Spectrophotometry, Neutron Activation Analysis , X – rays and X-ray based techniques such as XRD, XRF, Mass Spectroscopy , Chromatographic Techniques: TLC, GLC, HPLC,HPTLC , Hyphenated Techniques: GC-MS, LC-MS, IR-MS, Electrophoresis: High and Low voltage electrophoresis, Immunoelectrophoresis,  Immunoassays.
Detection and Identification of Blood stains, Determination of Species of Origin, Blood Group Systems, Techniques of Determination of Blood groups of Blood Stains, Detection of Seminal and other body fluids and their Blood Grouping, Red cells Enzymes, Serum Proteins of forensic significance, Disputed Paternity & Maternity.
 DNA: Structure, DNA as Genetic Marker, DNA Extraction and Profiling Techniques, DNA Phenotyping and RNA Profiling & their applications.
Analysis of Ethyl alcohol in beverages, liquors, biological fluids and breath, Analysis of Methanol and Denaturants, Illicit liquors.
Concept of Velocity, Penetration and Projectile motion.
Explosives: Definition, Types and Analyses.
Photography: Types, Application in Criminal Investigation.
Nature, type and structure of- Hair & Fibers, Pollens and Diatoms: Their Application in Forensic Investigation, Dust & Soil, Paint, Lacquer & Varnishes and Glass.
Basics of statistics- Mean, Median, Mode, Probability.

MATHEMATICS
Sequences and Series: Convergence of sequences of Real Numbers, Comparison, Root and Ratio tests for
Convergence of series of Real Numbers.
Differential Calculus: Limits, Continuity and Differentiability of functions of one and two variables. Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorems, Taylor’s Theorem, Indeterminate Forms, Maxima and Minima of functions of one and two variables.
Integral Calculus: Fundamental Theorems of Integral Calculus, Applications of Definite Integrals, Arc Lengths, Areas and Volumes, Double and Triple Integrals.
Matrices: Rank, Inverse of a Matrix. Systems of Linear Equations. Linear Transformations, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, Symmetric, Skew-Symmetric and Orthogonal Matrices.

STATISTICS
Basic Statistics: Measure of Central Tendency, Dispersion, Skewness and Kurtosis.
Probability: Axiomatic definition of Probability and Properties, Conditional Probability, Multiplication Rule. Theorem of Total Probability. Bayes’ Theorem and Independence of Events.
Random Variables:  Probability Mass Function, Probability Density Function and Cumulative Distribution functions, Distribution of a function of a Random variable. Mathematical Expectation, Moments and Moment Generating Function.
Standard Distributions: Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distributions.
Sampling Distributions: Chi-square, t and F Distributions, and their properties.
Testing of Hypotheses:  Basic Concepts, Null Hypotheses and Alternative Hypotheses, Type-1 and Type-II Error.