Syllabi of LPUNEST (PG Agriculture)

Grammar: Parts of speech – Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Adverb, Verb, Preposition, Conjunction Interjection; Tenses – Present, Past and Future Tense in Active and Passive Form; Modal Verbs – Can, Could, May, might, Should, Will, would, punctuation, independent and dependent clauses, sentence and its types, determiners

Associative Language Skills: Vocabulary – Antonyms, Synonyms, Homonyms, Homographs, one-word substitution, Word Analogies, Idioms and Phrases.

Common Errors: Sentence Correction and Error Finding Exercises

Comprehension Passages: Closed and Open paragraphs, identifying key ideas or theme.

Agronomy
Principles of Agronomy, crop ecology and geography and Agricultural Meteorology: Agronomy – meaning and scope, National & International agricultural research institutes in India, Agro climatic zones of India, Tillage, crop stand establishment and planting geometry and their effect on crop, Organic farming, precision farming, integrated farming systems, principles of field experimentation. Climate shift and its ecological implications, Agro- ecological regions in India, Climatic factors and their effect on crop productivity, weather & climate, Earth’s atmosphere, solar radiation, Atmospheric temperature and global warning.
Crops and atmospheric humidity, weather forecasting.

Field crops : Origin, distribution, economic importance, soil and climatic requirement, varieties, cultural practices and yield of cereals (rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, minor millets, barley), pulses (chickpea, lentil, peas, pigeon pea, mungbean, urdbean), oilseeds (groundnut, sesame, soybean, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, safflower, linseed), fiber crops (cotton, jute, sunnhemp), sugar crops (sugarcane), fodder & forage crops (sorghum, maize, napier, berseem, Lucerne, oats), and commercial crops (potato, tobacco).

Weed management: Principles of weed management, classification, biology and ecology of weeds, crop weed competition and allelopathy, concepts and methods of weed control, integrated weed management, classification, formulations, selectivity Application methods and equipments, special and problematic weeds and their management in cropped and non-cropped situations, weed management in field crops.

Soil fertility and fertilizer use: Essential plant nutrients and their deficiency symptoms, concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, indicators of soil fertility and productivity, fertilizer materials and their availability to plants, slow release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors, principles and methods of fertilizer application, integrated nutrient management, site specific nutrient management.

Dryland Agronomy: Characteristics of Dryland farming and delineation of Dryland tracts, constraints of Dryland farming in India, Types of drought and their management, contingency crop planning and mid-season corrections for aberrant weather and its recycling. Watershed management.

Entomology
Crop Protection Principles in field and storage. Major insect pests and diseases of agricultural crops like rice, cotton, pulses, oilseed crops like groundnut, soybean and mustard, vegetables like tomato, Cole crops; fruit crops like mango and banana and their management principles.

Classification of animal kingdom up to class level and the distinguishing characters up to orders in class insecta and the general organization of an insect external morphology with special reference to lepidopteron larvae, coleopteran adults; and honeybee; metamorphosis and moulting; different physiological systems; insect plant relationship; insect pests of agricultural and horticultural crops, and their stored/processed products, insect vectors of plant diseases- identification, biology, nature of damage, and their management tactics; and pests of household, medical and veterinary importance and their control; useful and beneficial insects like honeybee, lac insect, silkworm and pollinators. Cultural, biological, insecticidal, quarantine, and regulatory aspects; insecticide classification and insecticide resistance management; and insect protective transgenic crops

Plant Breeding & Genetics
Structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics; structure and functions of nucleic acids, Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, physical and chemical basis of heredity; chromosome structure; genes/operon concept; protein biosynthesis; transformation, recombination, Heterosis; elements of economic botany, Seed germination and dormancy; pollination/fertilization in flowering plant; methods of seed testing; breeders, foundation and certified seeds; seed production in self and cross pollinated crops, DUS testing & PPV & FR.

Plant Pathology
Important plant pathogenic organisms. History of Plant Pathology. Survival and Dispersal of Plant Pathogens. Phenomenon of infection. Pathogenesis, Defense mechanism, Epidemiology, Forecasting. Principles of plant diseases management and integrated disease management (IDM). Etiological agents: rusts, smuts, powdery/downy mildews, wilts, yellows, mosaic, necrosis, enations, blights and witches- broom.
Major diseases of rice, wheat, sugarcane, red gram, cotton, potato, chilli, onion and cucurbits.
 
Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry
Soil as a medium for plant growth, composition of earth`s crust, weathering of rocks and minerals, components of soil-their importance, soil profile, soil partials-physical mineralogical and chemical nature. Mechanical analysis, Stokes law, assumptions, limitation and applications. Soil, physical properties-density, porosity, texture, soil structure and their brief descriptions. Rheological properties in soils, calculations of porosity and bulk density. Soil air-Aeration, causes of poor aeration, factors affecting aeration, importance for plant growth. Soil temperature-sources and losses of soil heat. Factors affecting soil temperature, its importance in plant growth. Soil water-structure of water, soil-water-energy relationship, classifications, surface tension and movement in soil. Soil colloids-properties, structure of silicate clay minerals, sources of negative charges, properties, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and vermiculite clay minerals, milli-equivalent concept, cation exchange capacity, anion exchange capacity, buffering of soils. Problem soils- acid, saline, sodic and acid sulphate soils-their characteristics, formation, problems and management. Irrigation, water quality and its evaluation. Waterlogged soils- basic features, distinction with upland soils.
 
Essential plant nutrients- criteria of essentiality, functions for plant growth, mechanisms for movement and uptake of ions in soils and plants, Forms of nutrients in soils, deficiency symptoms on plants, luxury consumption, nutrient interaction and chelated micronutrients. Soil fertility, evaluation and management for plant growth, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations. Soil classification- diagnostic surface and sub-surface horizons, soil survey- objectives, uses, land capability classification. Remote sensing and its application in agriculture, SIS, GIS and GPS- basic features and uses in agriculture, Soil micro-organisms, classification and their roles. Organic matter-decomposition, C:N ratio, mineralization and immobilization processes, humus, role of organic matter in soil quality. Soil erosion, types and control measures. Fertilizers and manures – classifications, NPK fertilizers, their reactions in soil, green manuring, recycling of organic wastes, composting. Soil and water pollution- sources brief idea about different pollutants in soils and their managements.

Horticulture
Importance & scope of horticulture. Climatic zones of horticulture crops. Orchard establishment including high density planting. Propagation methods & root stocks. Training & pruning methods, use of PGR. Production technology of fruit crops (Mango, Banana, Papaya, Ber, Apple, Guava, Citrus, Custard apple)
Importance & scope of vegetables. Classification of Vegetables. Package of practices of vegetables (Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli, Okra, Cucumber, Bottle gourd, Sponge gourd, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Onion, Garlic, Potato, Palak, Carrot, Radish, Drumstick, Peas & Cowpea)
Establishment of Ornamental garden, uses of tree, shrubs, climbers & seasonal flowers in garden. Package of practices of Rose, Marigold and Chrysanthemum.
Importance & Scope of Post-Harvest Technology of Horticulture crops. Maturity indices, grading, packing & storage of fruits & vegetables. Importance & Scope of Fruit & Vegetable Preservation. Principles of preservation by heat, low temperature, chemicals & fermentation. Preservation methods by canning, bottling, freezing, drying & dehydration. Preparation of jams, jellies, candies, chutney, pickle, ketchup and squashes. Preservatives and colours permitted and prohibited in India.
 
Biotechnology
Importance of agriculture in national economy; principles of crop production: cultivation of rice, wheat chickpea pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato and mango Major soils of India role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. General structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics. Elementary knowledge of growth, development, photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration: Elements of economic botany. General structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management. Organic farming; bio-fertilizer; bio-pesticides. Recombinant DNA technology; transgenic crops. Ideotyping in agriculture crops.
Importance of biochemistry in agriculture Acid-base concept and buffers; PH. Classification, structure and metabolic functions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Structure and function of nucleic acids. Enzymes: structure nomenclature mechanism of action; vitamins and minerals as coenzymes and cofactors metabolic pathways: Metabolic pathways: glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation triglyceride biosynthesis. Electron transport chain; ATP formation. Photosynthesis: C-3 C-4 and CAM pathways. Nitrate assimilation; biological nitrogen fixation. Colorimetric and chromatographic techniques.
Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms differences between fungi, bacteria mycoplasms and viruses. Physical and chemical basis of heredity; chromosome structure. DNA replication, transcription and transiation; genetic code; operon concept. Genetic engineering; restriction enzymes; vectors gene cloning; gene transfer. Plant cell and tissue culture; micro-propagation; somaclonal variation. Transformation; recombination: heterosis General application of biotechnology Molecular and immunological techniques. Concept of bioinformatics, genomics and proteomics.
 
Plant Physiology
Seed structures of important crops viz. gram, maize, castor, wheat, soybean etc., Process of seed formation, morphological, physiological and biochemical changes accompanying seed development. Seed viability and vigour, Physiology of seed germination with steps and phases involved. Factors affecting seed germination. Phases of growth. Factors affecting growth. Measurement of growth, growth analysis –definitions and mathematical formulae, application. Properties and physiological functions of water in plants. Water potential and its components. Measurement of water status in plants. Kinds of soil water
Anti transpirants, bleeding and guttation, water use efficiency (WEU) Stomatal structure and function. Raw material, pigment system, structure of chloroplast, photophosphorylation, light and dark reactions, C3, C4 and CAM pathway, photorespiration, Phloem loading, translocation of assimilates, Source and sink relationship. Glycolysis, kerb’s cycle, electron transport system. Pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate cycle and fermentation. Factors affecting respiration. Measurement of respiration. Mengel’s classification of nutrients, criteria of essentiality, physiological role, metabolic functions and deficiency symptoms of elements, foliar application, hydroponics. Mechanism of mineral salt absorption and translocation. Classification of plants, thermoperiodism, phytochromes. Definition, nature of process and application, devernalization, mechanism and application. Occurrence, biosynthesis, physiological role and mode of action of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid, growth retardants; crop- water relationship. Plant nutrients and their functions. Phytohormones and their physiological role. Photo-periodism, vernalisation; pollination / fertilization in flowing plants. Post- harvest physiology and its significance.
Seed dormancy, Storage physiology, Fruit ripening –Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Hormonal regulation of fruit ripening with ethral, CCC, paleobuterozole and Polaris. Scope and importance of environmental studies. Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies and need for public awareness. Natural resources and associated problems Forest resources, Concept Structure and function of an ecosystem Producers, consumers and decomposers. Energy flow, Ecological succession. Food chain, food webs and ecological pyramids. Structure and function of the various ecosystem: Cropland ecosystem, Forest ecosystem, Grassland ecosystem, Desert ecosystem, Aquatic ecosystem

Dairy Technology
Milch and non-milch animals, breeds of various dairy animals, dairy products, meat and meat products, introduction to fish production.

Recombinant DNA Technology
Introduction, Tool of rDNA Technology,  Introduction of Recombinant DNA into Host Cells, Identification of Recombinants, DNA Library, DNA Probes, Hybridization Techniques, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), DNA Sequencing, Site-directed Mutagenesis.
Protein Structure and Engineering
Introduction to the World of Proteins, 3-D Shape of Proteins, Structure-Function Relationship in Proteins Purification of Proteins, Characterization of Proteins, Protein based Products, Designing Proteins (protein engineering).
Genomics and Bioinformatics
Introduction, Genome Sequencing Projects, Gene Prediction and Counting, Genome Similarity, SNPs and Comparative Genomics, Functional Genomics, Proteomics.
Microbial Culture and Applications
Introduction, Microbial culture techniques, Measurement and kinetics of microbial growth, Scale up of microbial process, Isolation of microbial products, Strain isolation and improvement, Biosafety issues in microbial technology.
Plant Cell Culture and Applications
Introduction, Cell and Tissue Culture Techniques, Applications of Cell and Tissue Culture, Gene Transfer Methods in Plants, Transgenic Plants with Beneficial Traits, Biosafety in Plant Genetic Engineering.
Animal Cell Culture and Applications
Introduction, Animal cell culture techniques, Characterisation of cell lines, Methods of gene delivery into cells, Scale-up of animal culture process, Applications of animal cell culture, Stem cell technology, Tissue engineering.