“Knowledge Brainstorm” (KBS), conducted under Transforming Education Awards for school students of North Eastern states, has proved to be the most preferred aptitude test for the young minds. KBS has been designed to examine the general skills, critical thinking, analytical skills, and intellectual promise of school students.
Programming and Data Structures: Programming in C/C++, Control Structures, Functions, Recursion, Parameter passing, Pointers, OOPS Fundamentals, File handling, Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees and graphs;
Java Programming: Basics of Java, keywords, operators, Control statements, Classes and Objects, polymorphism, inheritance;
Algorithms: Analysis, Notions of space and time complexity, Asymptotic analysis (best, worst, average cases) of time and space, array, Tree, Heap, Binary search tree; Sorting, Searching, upper and lower bounds;
Computer Organization and Architecture: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and data-path, CPU control design, Memory interface, Instruction pipelining, main memory, RISC and CISC;
Digital Logic: Boolean algebra, Combinational and sequential circuits, Minimization, Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point);
Databases: Relational model(relational algebra, Relational calculus), Query languages (SQL, MS-Access), Database design, Transactions control, Advanced DBMS- Business Analytics, Data Warehousing and Mining, Database Security and Privacy;
Operating System: Process Management System, CPU Scheduling, Memory management and Virtual memory, File systems, Deadlock, synchronization, Inter-process communication, I/O Systems. Disk operating System;
Computer Networking: ISO/OSI stack, Network Models, Transmission Media, Multiplexing, Error Deduction and Correction in data link layer, Access Control, Ethernet, Network layer Protocols, Routing, Transport Layer Protocols and Application Layer Protocols , Security and cryptography, Wireless Networks;
Automata Theory: Regular languages and finite automata, Chomsky Classification of languages, Context free grammars, Chomsky normal form, Greibach normal form, Turing machine, Recursive enumerable sets;
Software Engineering: Development models, software design, cost estimation, software maintenance , Software Project Size estimation techniques, Development models, cost estimation, Quality Standards in software testing, Introduction to Object oriented systems, Dynamic modelling
Compiler Design: Overview of compilation, Structure of a compiler, Lexical Analysis, Syntax Analysis, Semantic Analysis, Intermediate Code Generation, Symbol Table management, Compiler-Construction Tools;
Artificial Intelligence: Meaning of AI, The AI Problems, Task Domains, AI Technique, Criteria for Success, State Space Search, Production Systems, Heuristic Search, Problem & Production System Characteristics, Issues In The Design Of Search Programs, Common AI Problems ,Heuristic Search Techniques, General Concepts of Knowledge, Approaches of Knowledge Representation, Proposition logic, Predicate Logic;
Web Technology: HTML document structure, HTML basic elements, Hyperlinks, Images, Forms, Form Elements and Controls, Introduction to CSS and types of CSS, CSS properties, and CSS selectors.
Plant and Animal cell
Plant and Animal cell: Classification and general characteristics, Cell organelles, Cell Membrane, Classical experiments of biology,
Photosynthesis, cell structure, hormones functions,
Animal Physiology, different systems, hormones, Circulatory System: Structure & Functions, Reproductive system,
Genetics and Environmental Sciences
Genetics and Nucleic acid, Transgenic, Molecular Biology, Genetic engineering, Genetically Modified Plants, Evolution, Environmental Science, Ecology,
Metabolism-carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, Enzymes,
Plant Biotechnology, Animal Biotechnology, Industrial Biotechnology, Bioprocess engineering and technology, Bioinformatics, Intellectual Property Rights,
Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Friction and its applications: Kinematics of point mass and rigid body; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods; Principles of virtual work.
Strength of Materials: Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Deflection of beams: Macaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method, Torsion of Shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s Rankine’s and Secant formulae.
Structural Analysis: Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis
Steel Structures: Principles of working stress method. Design of connections, simple members, Built-up sections and frames, Design of Industrial roofs. Principles of ultimate load design. Design of simple members and frames.
Concrete Structures: Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads. Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes. Pre stressed concrete - types, losses and applications
Fluid Mechanics: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Buckingham’s Pi-theorem
Hydraulic Machines: Hydraulic turbines, classification, Choice of turbines, performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed. Centrifugal pumps – Types, characteristics, specific speed, Reciprocating pumps - Air vessels
Soil Mechanics: Properties of soil, classification and interrelationship; Compaction behaviour, methods of compaction and their choice; Permeability and seepage, flow nets; Compressibility and consolidation; Shearing resistance, stresses and failure; soil testing in laboratory. Earth pressure theories, stress distribution in soil
Foundation Engineering: Soil exploration, samplers, load tests, penetration tests, Types of foundations, Selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement, laboratory and field tests; Types of piles and their design and layout, Foundations on expansive and swelling soils.
Engineering Materials: Physical properties of construction materials with respect to their use in construction - Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement, different types of Mortars and Concrete. Specific use of Ferro cement, fibre reinforced C.C, High strength concrete. Timber, properties and defects - common preservation treatments. Use and selection of materials for specific use like Low Cost Housing, Mass Housing, High Rise Buildings.
Concrete Technology: Importance of W/C Ratio, Strength, ingredients, workability, testing for strength, elasticity, non-destructive testing, mix design methods.
Construction Planning and Management: Construction activity - schedules- organization for construction industry - Quality assurance principles. Use of Basic principles of network - analysis in form of CPM and PERT - their use in construction monitoring, Cost optimization and resource allocation. Basic principles of Economic analysis and methods. Project profitability - Basic principles of Boot approach to financial planning - simple toll fixation criterions.
Surveying: Common methods of distance and angle measurements, plane table survey, levelling, traverse survey, triangulation survey, corrections, and adjustments, contouring, topographical map. Surveying instruments for above purposes Tacheometry. Circular and transition curves; Principles of photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, GIS, Applications
Highway Engineering: Principles of highway planning, Highway alignments, Geometrical design: Cross section, camber, super elevation, horizontal and vertical curves. Classification of roads: low cost roads, flexible pavements, rigid pavements.
Traffic Engineering: Forecasting techniques, origin and destination survey, highway capacity, Channelised and unchannelised intersections, rotary design elements, markings, sign, signals, street lighting; Traffic surveys, Principle of highway financing.
Railway Engineering: Railways - Permanent way - components, types and their functions - Functions and Design constituents of turn and crossings - Necessity of geometric design of track - Design of station and yards.
Airport Engineering: Airports - Layout and orientation; Runway and taxiway design and drainage management; Zoning laws; Visual aids and air traffic control; Helipads, hangers, service equipment.
Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology - steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.
Irrigation Engineering : Duty, delta, Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.
Water Supply Engineering: Predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.
Waste Water Engineering: Urban rain water disposal; Systems of sewage collection and disposal; Design of sewers and sewerage systems; pumping; Characteristics of sewage and its treatment, Disposal of products of sewage treatment, stream flow rejuvenation Institutional and industrial sewage management; Plumbing Systems; Rural and semi-urban sanitation.
Networks, Signals and Systems
Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis, Network theorems, Wye‐Delta transformation, Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors, Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform, Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits, Linear 2‐port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions, State equations for networks. Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications, Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform, interpolation of discrete-time signals, LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques.
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon, Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, Generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations, P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell, Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process.
Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs, Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers, Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response, BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational, Simple op-amp circuits, Active filters, Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and op-amp configurations, Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers, Voltage reference circuits, Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.
Number systems, Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs, Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines, Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs, Semiconductor memories, ROM, SRAM, DRAM, 8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
Basic control system components, Feedback principle, Transfer function, Block diagram representation, Signal flow graph, Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems, Frequency response, Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria, Bode and root-locus plots, Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation, State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.
Random processes, autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems, Analog communications, amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, super heterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications, Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem, Digital communications, PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation, Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation, Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.
Electrostatics, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector, Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth, Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart, Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations, Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays, Basics of radar, Light propagation in optical fibers.
Electric Circuits Network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, Transient response of DC and AC networks, Sinusoidal steady‐state analysis, Resonance, Ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Superposition theorem, Maximum power transfer theorem, Two‐port networks, Three phase circuits, Power and power factor in AC circuits.
Signals and Systems Representation of continuous and discrete‐time signals, Shifting and scaling operations, Linear Time Invariant and Causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals, Sampling theorem, Applications of Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform and z-Transform.
Electrical Machines: Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency;
Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation; Auto‐transformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles, DC machines: separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, starting and speed control of DC motors; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Operating principle of single phase induction motors;
Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motor, characteristics.
Power Systems, Power generation concepts, AC and DC transmission concepts, Models and performance of transmission lines and cables, Series and shunt compensation, Electric field distribution and insulators, Distribution systems, Per‐unit quantities, Bus admittance matrix, Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson load flow methods, Voltage and Frequency control, Power factor correction, Symmetrical components, Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis, Principles of over‐current, differential and distance protection; Circuit breakers, System stability concepts, Equal area criterion.
Control Systems Mathematical modelling and representation of systems, Feedback principle, transfer function, Block diagrams and Signal flow graphs, Transient and Steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems, Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist criteria, Bode plots, Root loci, Stability analysis, Lag, Lead and Lead‐Lag compensators; P, PI and PID controllers; State space model, State transition matrix.
Electrical and Electronic Measurements Bridges and Potentiometers, Measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; Instrument transformers, Digital voltmeters and multimeters, Phase, Time and Frequency measurement; Oscilloscopes, Error analysis.
Electronic Devices and Circuits
Analog and Digital Electronics Characteristics of diodes, BJT, MOSFET; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifiers; Amplifiers: Biasing, Equivalent circuit and Frequency response; Oscillators and Feedback amplifiers; Operational amplifiers: Characteristics and applications; Simple active filters and Timers, Combinational and Sequential logic circuits, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Schmitt trigger, Sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, 8085 Microprocessor: Architecture, Programming and Interfacing.
Power Electronics Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: Diode, Thyristor, Triac, GTO, MOSFET, IGBT; DC to DC conversion: Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters; Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers, Line commutated thyristor based converters, Bidirectional AC to DC voltage source converters, Issues of line current harmonics, Power factor, Distortion factor of AC to DC converters, Single phase and three phase inverters, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation.
Electromagnetic Fields Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magneto-motive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.
Engineering Mathematics: Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series, Vector identities, Directional derivatives.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s equation, Euler’s equation, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Taylor series, Residue theorem, Solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, Single and Multi‐step methods for differential equations.
Transform Theory: Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform, z‐Transform.
Engineering Mechanics: Free-body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations, collisions.
Mechanics of Materials: Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson’s ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength.
Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope.
Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts.
Machine Design: Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches, springs.
Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy, forces on submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; dimensional analysis; viscous flow of incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends and fittings.
Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler’s charts; thermal boundary layer, dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, Stefan- Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis.
Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behaviour of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of Thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and irreversibility; thermodynamic relations.
Applications: Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Air-standard Otto, Diesel and dual cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines.
Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase diagrams, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.
Casting, Forming and Joining Processes: Different types of castings, design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design. Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy. Principles of welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding.
Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining; basic machine tools; single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes; principles of work holding, design of jigs and fixtures.
Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools.
Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.
Inventory Control: Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems.
Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.
Mechanical Properties, Optical Properties, Magnetic Properties, Electrical Properties, Thermal Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic Properties.
Characterization of materials:
UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Potentiometer, Infrared spectroscopy, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission e-microscopy.
Quadratic Equation, Coordinate system, Taylor Series, Differential equations, Vectors.
Hard Cutting materials, Biomaterials, Thermal materials, Storage materials, Semiconductor optical materials,
Introduction, Types of nanomaterial’s, Carbon based nanomaterial’s, Metal nanoparticles, quantum.
Application of Nano materials:
Nano electronics, Nano mechanics, Nano biotechnology, Nano solar cells,
Pollution, Environment and Waste Management, Basic of Computers.
Grammar: Parts of speech – Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Adverb, Verb, Preposition, Conjunction Interjection; Tenses – Present, Past and Future Tense in Active and Passive Form; Modal Verbs – Can, Could, May, might, Should, Will, would.
Associative Language Skills: Vocabulary – Antonyms, Synonyms, one-word substitution, Word Analogies, Idioms and Phrases
Common Errors: Sentence Correction and Error Finding Exercises
Comprehension Passages: Closed and Open paragraphs, identifying key ideas or theme.
Unit1: Introduction to Food Science:
Packaging as a unit operation., Introduction toFood Science, The Impact of Food Science on Society, Unit operations in FoodProcessing
Unit 2: Food Deterioration and its control:
Shelf life and dating of foods, Major causes offood deterioration, Some principles of food preservation, Control of micro-organisms, Control of enzymes and other factors, Growth of micro-organisms in foods
Unit 3: Thermal Processing:
The Heat Process, The D-value Concept, EstimatingProcessing Times, The z and Fo Values, Continuous Agitating Retort, The hydrostaticcooker, The HTST process, Aseptic fill method, The Sous-Vide Process
Unit 4: Drying:
Packaging of dried foods, Deterioration of dried foods, Factors affectingdrying rate, Types of driers, Grain drying theory, grain dryers, ; Liquid dryers
Unit 5: Physical chemistry of foods:
Sols, Gels, Pectin gels, Colloidal sols, Stabilization of colloidal system, Syneresis, Emulsions, Properties of emulsions, Formation ofemulsion, Emulsifying agent, Food foams, Formation, stability and destruction offoam, Application of colloidal chemistry to Food preparation
Unit 6: Low Temperature Preservation:
Refrigeration, Requirement of refrigerated storage, Changes in food during refrigerated storage, Freezing, The Preservative Effect of Freezing, Freezing methods, Quality changes during frozen storage, Freezingcurve, Changes during freezing, Rate of freezing
Unit7: Waste Disposal and Sanitation:
Waste water, Hardness of water, Break point chlorination, Physical and chemical impurities, BOD and COD, Waste water treatment, Milk plant sanitation, CIP, Sanitizers used in food industry
Unit 8: Scope and development of food chemistry:
moisture in foods, role and type ofwater in foods, functional properties of water, water activity and sorption isotherm,molecular mobility and foods stability
changes of carbohydrates on cooking, modification ofcarbohydrates, dietary fibres and carbohydrates digestibility, Enzymatic and chemicalreactions of carbohydrates
Unit 10: Proteins in foods:
processing induced physical changes in protein, chemical andnutritional changes, chemical and enzymatic modification of protein
Unit 11: Lipids in foods :
role and use of lipids/fat, crystallization and consistency, chemicalaspects of lipids, lipolysis, auto-oxidation, thermal decomposition, chemistry of fryingtechnology of fat and oil
Unit 12: Minerals and vitamins in food
Role of minerals in nutrition, role of vitamins in nutrition, classification, chemical structures and functions
Unit13: Overview of post harvest technology
Concept and science of post harvest technology, production and post harvest losses, reasons for losses, importance of loss reduction, Water activity, water binding and its effect on enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions and food texture, control of water activity and moisture
Unit 14: Post harvest handling operations:
Cleaning: Cleaning of grains, washing of fruits and vegetables fruits and vegetables, types of cleaners, screens: types of screens, rotary screens, vibrating screens, machinery for cleaning of fruits and vegetables (air cleaners, washers), cleaning efficiency, care and maintenance, Sorting and grading: Sorting, grading, methods of grading, Grading- Size grading, colour grading, specific gravity grading, equipment’s for grading of fruits and vegetables, their grading efficiency
Unit 15: Separation and Drying:
Magnetic separator, destoners, electrostatic separators, pneumatic separator, Decorticating and shelling: Principles of working, design and constructional details, operating parameters, maintenance, etc. of various decorticators/dehullers/shellers, description of groundnut decorticators, maize shellers
Unit 16: Parboiling:
Parboiling: process, changes during parboiling, parboiling methods, advantages and disadvantages of parboiling with respect to milling, nutritional and cooking quality of grain, significance of glass transition temperature
Unit 17: Milling:
Milling: milling, polishing, grinding, Milling equipments, dehuskers, polishers
(abrasion, friction, water jet), flour milling machines, pulse milling machines,
grinders, cutting machines, oil expellers, machine efficiency and power requirement
Unit 18: Materials handling:
Introduction to different conveying equipment’s used for handling of grains, conveying equipment’s used for fruits and vegetables, Scope and importance of material handling devices, Study of different material handling systems: Classification, principles of operation, conveyor system selection/design, Belt conveyor: Principle, characteristics, design and operation, Chain conveyer: Principle of operation, advantages, disadvantages; design, Screw conveyor: Principle of operation, advantages, disadvantages, Bucket Conveyer: capacity, speed, principles of operation, Pneumatic conveying system: Capacity and power
requirement, types, air/product separators, ; Gravity conveyor design considerations,
capacity and power requirement
Unit 19: Introduction to fruits and vegetable processing
Importance of fruits and vegetables, Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables, History and need of preservation, Reasons of spoilage, Methods of preservation
Unit 20: Commercial Canning of fruits and vegetables:
Factors essential for running canning unit, Basic steps in Canning Process, Processing Methods, Canning of Mango, Pineapple, Cherries, Canning of Peas, tomato, mushroom, Selection of fruits and vegetables, Spoilage in canned foods, Containers for Packing, Lacquering, Factors affecting process time and temperature, Syrups and brines for canning
Unit 21: Jam, Jellies and Marmalades
Definition, Types and varieties of fruits used in preparation, Ingredients for jam and jellies: gelling agents, sweetening agents, acidulents, coloring and flavorings, Processing and Technology for Jams, Jelly and Marmalade, Defects in Jellies and marmalades, Theory of jelly formation
Unit 22: Fruit beverages:
Introduction, Processing of fruit juices, Equipments for fruit juices, Preservation of fruit juices : Pasteurization, chemicals, freezing, drying, carbonation, tetra packing, Processing of squashes, cordials, nectars, concentrates and powder
Unit 23: Pickles, chutneys, sauces and tomato products:
Causes of Spoilage in Pickles, Various types of Pickles, Methods of Pickling process, Methods for manufacturing of chutneys and examples, Method for manufacturing of sauces and types, Tomatoes selection, pulping and processing into juice, Manufacturing process of tomato puree and paste, Manufacturing process of ketchup, sauce and soup
Unit 24: Drying of Fruits and Vegetables :
Process variation for fruits and vegetables, Packing and storage of dried products, Sun drying, Mechanical dehydration of fruits and vegetables, Other methods of dehydration, By products: Utilizating waste material, Citrus by- products, Citrus oils
Unit 25: Introduction to food engineering
Mass and energy balance, Concept of Unit operation, Units and dimensions, Unit conversions, dimensional analysis
Unit 26: Grinding and Mixing:
Principle of size reduction, Equipments used in food industry, Size reduction of fibrous food, dry foods and liquid foods
Unit 27: Fluid flow in food processing:
Liquid Transport systems, Properties of Liquids, Newton’s Law of Viscosity, Principle of capillary tube and rotational viscometer, Properties of Non-Newtonian fluids, Flow characteristics, Reynolds Number, Bernoulli”s Equation, Principles of Flow Measurement devices
Unit 28: Refrigeration and Freezing:
Concept and selection of a refrigerant, Description of a Refrigeration cycle, Pressure Enthalpy charts and Tables, Mathematical expressions useful in analysis of vapour compression refrigeration cycle, Freezing time calculation using Plank’s Equation, Frozen food storage
Unit 29: Heat and Mass Transfer:
Convective heat transfer coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient and design of tubular heat exchanger, Membrane devices used for RO and UF: Plate and Frame, Tubular, Spiral wound and hollow fiber devices, Membrane separation systems-Electrodialysis system, Reverse Osmosis, Membrane System and Ultrafiltration Membrane System, Systems for heating and cooling food products, Thermal Properties of Food, Modes of heat transfer, Estimation of conductive heat transfer coefficient, Fick’s Law of Diffusion, Mass transfer in packaging material
Unit 30: Steam, Evaporation and Dehydration:
Basic Drying Process, Moisture content on wet basis and dry basis, Generation of steam, Construction and functions of fire tube and water tube boilers, Thermodynamics of Phase change, Steam tables, Boiling point elevation, Types of evaporations, Design of single effect evaporators, Dehydration system Design
Unit 31: Meat composition and slaughtering:
Composition of meat, Nutrition value of meat, Quality of meat, Slaughtering and dressing of buffalo and pig
Unit 32: Meat products & Tenderization of meat :
Meat tenderization, Rigor Mortis, Storage of meat, Meat sausages, Comminuted meat products
Unit 33: Poultry and egg processing :
Slaughtering and dressing of poultry, grading and processing of poultry, composition and nutritive value of poultry and eggs, Structure of egg, egg grading and preservation
Unit 34: Handling and preservation of poultry and egg :
Handling of egg and poultry, packaging, storage and transportation of eggs and poultry, Poultry and egg freezing, egg pasteurization, desugarization and dehydration
Unit 35: Structure, composition and preservation of fish
Classification of fish, Structure of fish, Composition and nutrition value of fish, Post mortem changes in fish, Curing, Freezing, Smoking, Drying, Fish protein concentrate, Comminuted fish products
Unit 36: Wheat:
Structure of wheat, composition of wheat, Types of wheat, Wheat milling, Flour grade, Flour treatments (bleaching, maturing), Flour for various purposes, Utilization of by products
Unit 37: Rice:
Milling of rice (mechanical and solvent extraction), Parboiling of rice, Ageing of rice, Utilization of by products, Composition and structure
Unit 38: Corn:
Milling (wet & dry), Types of corn, Nutritive value, Structure of corn, Composition of corn, Utilization of corn, Extruded products of corn
Unit 39: Pulses and Oilseed
Pulses : Milling of pulses (Dry milling and Wet milling), Improved milling method,
General structure of pulses, Nutritional composition of pulses, Classification of pulses
Oilseeds : Introduction, Extraction of oil and refining, Sources of protein (defatted
flour, protein concentrates and isolates), Properties and uses, Protein texturization, refining, hydrogenations, interesterification, safety use of oils and fats in food formulation, Enzymatic and chemical reactions of fats, Rancidity and its types, detection techniques and chemical aspects of lipids, antioxidants
Unit 40: Food safety and regulation
Introduction to food quality management: Definition, quality concepts, quality perception, quality attributes, safety, health, sensory, shelf life, National and International laws & Regulations: USFDA, EU, Codex alimantarious, World Trade Organization (Sanitary and Phyto- Sanitary agreement, Technical Barriers in Trade), Standards of Identity and Quality, Labelling standards, FSSAI